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NEW MEXICO 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 




RETHINKING NAVAJO PUEBLITOS 



Contributions by 
Michael P. Marshall & Patrick Hogan 



CULTURAL RESOURCES SERIES NO. 8, 1991 



NEW MEXICO 
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

CULTURAL RESOURCES SERIES - PUBLISHED MONOGRAPHS 



1. Fred Nials, John Stein, and John Roney. Chacoan Roads in the Southern Peripliery: 
Results of Phase II of the BLM Chaco Roads Project. 1987. 

2. Margaret A. Powers and Byron P. Johnson. Defensive Sites of Dinetah. 1987. 

3. Eileen Camilli, Dabney Ford, and Signa Larralde. Volume 1: Report of the First 
Field Season - San Augustine Coal Area, Archeological Investigations in West-Central 
New Mexico. 1988. 

4. Klara Kelley. Volume 2: Historic Cultural Resources - San Augustine Coal Area, 
Archeological Investigations in West-Central New Mexico. 1988. 

5. David W. Kayser and Charles H. Carroll. Volume 3: Report of the Final Field Season- 
San Augustine Coal Area, Archeological Investigations in West-Central New Mexico. 

1988. 

6. Lynne Sebastian and Signa Larralde. Living on the Land: 11,000 Years of Human 
Adaptation in Southeastern New Mexico, An Overview of Cultural Resources in the 
Roswell District, Bureau of Land Management. 1989. 

7. Donald Couchman. Cooke's Peak-Pasaron Por Aqui: A Focus on United States 
History in Southwestern New Mexico. 1990. 

8. Rethinking Navajo Pueblitos. 1991. 

Patrick Hogan. Navajo-Pueblo Interaction during the Gobernador Phase: A 
Reassessment of the Evidence. 

Michael P. Marshall. The Pueblito as a Site Complex: Archeological 
Investigations in the Dinetah District. 



BLM-NM-ST-92-006-4331 
ISBN-1 -8781 78-09-1 



q cf 



RETHINKING NAVAJO PUEBLITOS 



1991 

Bureau of Land Management 

Albuquerque District 

Farmington Resource Area 

Farmington, New Mexico 



NAVAJO-PUEBLO INTERACTION 
DURING THE GOBERNADOR PHASE 

A Reassessment of the Evidence 

Patrick Hogan 



and 



THE PUEBLITO AS A SITE COMPLEX: 
ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE 
DINETAH DISTRICT 

The 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 

Michael P. Marshall 

with assistance from 
Paul S. Grigg 



FORWARD 



The second volume in New Mexico's Cultural Resources Publication Series, Defensive Sites ofDinetah, by 
Margaret A. Powers and Byron P. Johnson, has proven to be extremely popular. It is now in its second printing. 

At the time of its release in 1986, we stated in the volume Introduction that the publication summarized what 
was known about Navajo pueblitos in the Largo-Gobernador region in northwest New Mexico. Since 1986, 
much has been accomplished to preserve, protect, and interpret these spectacular defensive site complexes. 
Our investment in protective measures and research is indicative of our commitment to open several of these 
properties to pubHc visitation under the BLM's Adventures in the Past program. 

Management actions taken over the past five years have included development of patrol packets and 
agreements with the San Juan Archeological Society whereby members volunteer to monitor the condition of 
these sites. The Bureau produced a full color interpretive brochure, installed visitor registration boxes, and 
implemented off-road vehicle closures. Sites slated for public interpretation have been recorded to Historic 
American Buildings Survey standards. Farmington Resource Area archeologists completed a combined 
cultural resources/recreation management plan to explain our interpretive goals and to lay out strategies for 
insuring adequate protection in the face of increasing visitation. Stabilization maintenance repaired the 
damage caused by years of weathering. 

Research is continuing apace. Investigations of tree rings by the University of Arizona will provide the most 
complete and accurate data ever assembled concerning the actual span of occupation at these Navajo Pueblitos. 
Surface collections and midden excavations are now being conducted by the University of New Mexico at 
several major properties. Intensive inventories, the subject of this publication, are for the first time document- 
ing the entire site complexes associated with the massive defensive pueblito structures. 

Traditionally, researchers focused their attention only on the visually arresting masonry towers and fortress- 
like structures of the pueblitos. Previous articles tended to present a one-sided approach to interpreting this 
fascinating period in our history, favoring the concept that the pueblitos existed only as a result of construction 
by and the cultural influences of Pueblo refugees on the Navajo. This volume, however, makes clear that a 
multitude of features are associated with the pueblitos and that the extent of Pueblo influence may be greatly 
overrated. The pueblito structures represented only one component of much larger occupational clusters that 
included ramadas, corrals, sweat lodges, work areas, and forked-stick hogans. The picture that emerges is that 
while the pueblitos may have served as places of refuge offering protection from raiding Utes, actual habitation 
and subsistence activities took place in the surrounding countryside. 

This volume contributes substantially to archeological knowledge in the Dinetah region of northwest New 
Mexico. It represents another positive by-product of the Bureau's Adventures in the Past program. In 
anticipation of opening up certain sites for interpretation and public visitation, mitigation measures often 
include architectural recordation, intensive inventories, and excavations. These research efforts, in turn, 
contribute new and exciting information which can be incorporated into interpretive programs at the sites. 

The defensive settlement system which evolved around pueblitos succeeded for over 50 years. However, our 
understanding of the evolution, strategic operation, and eventual collapse of this defensive site settlement 
system is far from complete. It is our hope that the continuing research made available through this publication 
series will broaden our understanding of a culture's systemic response to unrelenting military pressure and 
competition over resources. There is still much to learn... 



LouAnn Jacobson 
Stephen L. Fosberg 
Series Editors 



Acknowledgements 



Several people contributed to the preparation of the final camera-ready document. Dick Chapman at the 
Office of Contract Archeology (OCA), University of New Mexico, provided diskettes of Mike Marshall's 
original manuscript, prints of several of the photos used here, and original copies of all the maps and sketches 
in "The Pueblito as a Site Complex." Pat Hogan took time out of his busy schedule to reorganize a chapter 
from another BLM contracted document. Research Design for the Val Verde Gathering System, and provided 
the reevaluation of pueblo influence as an introduction and background for the survey data. Tina Garcia 
retyped and redesigned all 81 tables in Marshall's study (they did not translate well from the OCA software 
program to the BLM software). Esther Sanchez keyed in editorial changes for the Marshall manuscript and 
Sylvia Vigil keyed in editorial changes for Hogan's manuscript. Marilu Waybourn provided technical editing 
of Hogan's "Reevaluation" and invaluable assistance in the completion of the camera-ready copy for Marshall's 
chapters. Without Lu's help, this publication would have been delayed by several weeks and we owe her a 
special thanks. 

LouAnn Jacobson 
Stephen Fosberg 

Santa Fe 
November 1991 



NAVAJO-PUEBLO INTERACTION 
DURING THE GOBERNADOR PHASE 

A Reassessment of the Evidence 



Patrick Hogan 



Abstract 



The stone towers of the Dinetah have long held a fascination for archeologists, and almost a century of 
research has been devoted to understanding the cultural processes that gave rise to these monuments. For 
most of that period, construction of the pueblitos was attributed to Pueblo refugees who fled to the Navajos 
when the Spanish reconquered New Mexico in the closing years of the seventeenth century. Only in the last 
few decades have we come to recognize that these strongholds were built for defense against Ute and 
Comanche raiders. What has not changed is the long-standing perception that eighteenth-century Navajo 
culture was fundamentally altered by a massive influx of Pueblo refugees. This document provides a review of 
the archeological and historical evidence supporting this interpretation of the Gobernador Phase as a period 
of intensive Navajo-Pueblo interaction. Based on that review, it is suggested that scholars have greatly 
overestimated both the number of Pueblo refugees who joined the Navajos and the influence of those refugees 
on Navajo culture. 



Table of Contents 



Abstract i 

Chapter 1 - The Archeological Evidence 1 

Figure 1. Area of Navajo, Pueblo, and Spanish interaction in Northwestern 

New Mexico 2 

Chapter 2 - The Historical Evidence 9 

Chapter 3 - Summary and Conclusions 21 

References 23 



Chapter 1 

The Archeological Evidence 



This review of archeological research at Gobern- 
ador Phase sites has two objectives. The first is to 
document the extent to which our perceptions of 
Navajo-Pueblo interaction during the Gobernador 
Phase have been conditioned by uncritical accep- 
tance of the "refugee hypothesis." The second ob- 
jective is to assess the archeological evidence cited 
in support of that hypothesis. To achieve these ob- 
jectives, both the arguments made by previous re- 
searchers and the evidence used to support those 
arguments are described in some detail (see Fig- 
ure 1 for area of cultural interaction). 

Kidder (1920) was the first to describe the 
pueblitos of the Gobernador area in a short article 
summarizing his own 1912 survey, a survey done by 
Nelson in 1916, and excavations conducted by Mor- 
ris in 1915. In describing the ruins, Kidder noted 
their defensive nature, the poor quality of the ma- 
sonry, the extensive use of wood and evidence that 
metal axes were employed, the association of Navajo 
hogans with the pueblo-like rooms, and the presence 
of sheep and cattle bones. The pottery was de- 
scribed as comprising three types: a Blackware that 
we now recognize as Dinetah Gray, a thin painted 
ware later named Gobernador Polychrome (Kidder 
and Shepard 1936), and a thick bichrome and poly- 
chrome pottery that was "not distinguishable. ..from 
the 'modern painted' ware of the Pecos and Tano 
countries in central New Mexico" (Kidder 1920:325) 
(Figure 1). From this evidence, Kidder concluded 
that the structures were built during the historical 
period, and he suggested two possible explanations 
for their origin. 

[Fjirst, that their inhabitants were indige- 
nous, and that iron tools, livestock, and 
other items were transmitted to them by 
tribes further south who were in actual 
contact with the Spanish; second, that 
their builders were members of one of the 
Pueblo tribes, who for some reason came 
north, lived in the Gobernador region for 



a time, and then either returned to' their 
fonyter houses, or were destroyed (Kidder 
1920:327). 

Kidder considered the first theory improbable 
because, "in the exhaustive lists of towns given by the 
early Spanish chroniclers, there is no mention of any 
such northern settlement" (1920:327). In support of 
the second theory, he referenced Bandelier's discus- 
sion of the Pueblo rebellions. 

...in 1696 occurred the last important in- 
sun-ection. A battle was fought in which 
the Jemez were completely routed, their 
Pueblo allies from Acoma and Zuhi de- 
seiiing them, and they fled north to the 
Navajo country. In the following summer 
no trace of them could be found in the 
Jemez valley. TJiey remained away for 
sometime, apparently about ten years, but 
eventually returned to their deserted towns 
(in Kidder 1920:328). 

Kidder could find no other account of any Pueblo 
people having moved so far to the north during or 
after the Revolt. Consequently, because Gobern- 
ador Canyon was in Navajo country and offered an 
ideal refuge, it seemed reasonable to attribute con- 
struction of the pueblitos to the .lemez refugees. He 
added that the hogan-like structures surely pointed 
to contact with the Navajos, and this also seemed 
appropriate to the case of the fieeing Jemez (Kidder 
1920:328). Even so, Kidder clearly viewed this con- 
clusion as conjecture — a hypothesis to be tested 
through comparison of the pottery from the Gobern- 
ador sites with that from the villages abandoned by 
the .lemez at the time of the Revolt. 

This conjecture profoundly inllucnced subse- 
quent archeological research. In an early paper on 
Navajo origins, Amsden indicates "the [Navajo] 
tribe grew as well during these troubled times. Many 
pueblos sent their non-combatants into the Navajo 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 




The Archeological Evidence 



country for refuge when capture by the dethroned 
conquerors seemed the only alternative, and num- 
bers of these refugees were merged into the tribe" 
(1932:202). In support of this statement, he included 
the following footnote: "Kidder describes ruins in 
Gobernador Caiion in northwestern New Mexico, 
which show a jumble of Navajo and Pueblo house 
structures, and pottery characteristic of both peo- 
ples; concluding that they date from this period 
when Pueblo and Navajo lived for a brief time 
together." 

In a preliminary report of the Laboratory of 
Anthropology's Largo-Navajo Project, published 
the same year, Mera indicated that village sites 
found during a survey of the Largo area "demon- 
strate a cultural complex that includes both Pueblo 
and Navajo pottery and domiciliary types" (Mera 
1938:237- 242). Mera obtained tree-ring dates in the 
early 1700s from some of these sites, and he noted 
that various kinds of Pueblo pottery, dating from the 
sixteenth through early nineteenth centuries, were 
found in abundance. In summarizing this research, 
Mera concluded: 

During the first half of the 18th century 
groups of Pueblo people representative of 
all the villages of that time are known to 
have left their homes to found others to the 
north in Navajo tenitoiy. Here, evidence 
shows they became so closely associated 
with the Navajos that, although the use of 
Pueblo styles in decorated pottery was 
continued, the indigenous Woodland-like 
type practically superseded their own util- 
ity wares. During this association a new 
and distinct type of polychrome pottery, 
decorated with Puebloan designs on an 
orange-colored ground, first appears 
(Mera 1938:237). 

Reiter's (1938) excavations at the Jemez pueblo 
of Unshagi would have provided an opportunity for 
the ceramic comparisons suggested by Kidder as a 
test of his hypothesis. Reiter did review the tradi- 
tional and historical evidence that .lemez refugees 
fled to Navajo country during the Rcconquest but, 
in considering the archeological data supporting 
those reports, he notes only that "Jemez shards have 
been found in several of the Gobernador and Largo 



sites to the north, confirming Dr. Kidder's sugges- 
tions" (Reiter 1938:38). 

In two decades, Kidder's suggestion that the 
Gobernador sites might have been built by Jemez 
refugees became an assumption that the sites were 
built by refugees from several of the Rio Grande 
pueblos. The archeological evidence supporting 
that assumption was the masonry architecture of the 
pueblitos, the presence of Jemez and other types of 
decorated Pueblo pottery, and a few tree-ring dates, 
which indicated that the pueblitos were built in the 
early eighteenth century. The presence of hogans 
and the predominance of indigenous Woodland-like 
utility wares at these sites were interpreted, not as 
contradictory evidence, but as an indication of con- 
tact between the Navajo and Pueblo refugees. With 
the question of who built the Gobernador sites re- 
solved, the emphasis of research shifted to a new 
problem. "Did the Navajo, as a result of this contact, 
acquire certain cultural traits derived from Pueblo 
sources, and with these an infusion of alien blood?" 
(Mera 1938:237). 

Farmer seems to have been the only archeologist 
to question Kidder's interpretation of the pueblito 
sites during this period. 

The association of towers and other 
Pueblo-like structures and hogan-like 
dwellings was observed in the Largo, 
Gobernador, and other canyons in the 
region by Kidder and others. Kidder sug- 
gests that the stone structures may have 
been built by Pueblo people from the Rio 
Grande valley who took refuge in the 
dinetah after the Pueblo Revolt against 
the Spanish in 1680 and that the hogan- 
like structures were made by the 
Navahos...Tliere is evidence, however, 
that the Navaho themselves took over the 
tower building complex. In a letter of 
Ugartey Loyola written in 1788, he tells of 
the Navaho building "...ten rock towers 
within their encampment... " Tfie origin of 
the tower complex is far from clear. Tow- 
ers had wide use in earlier times in south- 
eastern Utah and southwestern Colorado 
and in parts of northwestern New Mex- 
ico.. .Also patent to the question are the 
Spanish traits in the towers of the 1700's 
(Farmer 1942:69-70). 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Farmer made two important points in this pas- 
sage: (1) that the puebHto architecture might have 
been inspired by some source other than Pueblo 
refugees, and (2) that the Navajos themselves were 
known to have occupied the pueblitos. Yet, despite 
these observations and an explicit warning of "the 
danger of a reconstruction of native history based 
too extensively on ethnological and linguistic evi- 
dence" (Farmer 1942:79), his arguments did little to 
alter the assumption that the pueblitos were refugee 
pueblos. 

Keur's excavations at Big Bead Mesa (1941) and 
her survey and excavations in the Gobernador area 
(1944) fixed perceptions of the Gobernador Phase 
as a period of intensive interaction between the 
Navajo and Pueblo refugees. 

Vie sites [of the Gobernador re^on] con- 
sist of groups of hogans with associated 
stnictiires, such as sweat houses and stor- 
age pits, all Navaho in character, and 
mixed groups of pueblitos (small pueblo- 
like structures) or tower-pueblitos with ho- 
gans clustered nearby. ..In the character of 
the rooms, wall and roof constmction, 
windows, fireplaces, and architectural de- 
tails, the [pueblito] stmctures are typically 
puebloid...One of the most interesting 
sites exemplifying architecturally the very 
close relationship between the Navaho 
and Puebloan at this period is situated on 
a mesa top in San Rafael Canyon. It 
consists of a rather large and elaborate 
pueblo, from which extends a high com- 
pound wall enclosing a laige area... Within 
this enclosed compound are eight typical 
forked-stick hogans (Keur 1944:75-79). 

The pottery from the sites investigated by Keur 
consisted of 78.62% Navajo utility sherds, 14.4% 
Gobernador Polychrome sherds, and 4.69% 
Puebloid sherds. Except for the glazewares, which 
occurred sparsely only at the pueblitos, all types of 
sherds were recovered both from the pueblito com- 
plexes and from hogan groups not associated with 
the pueblitos. Nevertheless, Keur felt that the vari- 
ety and distribution of these materials supported her 
interpretation of the architectural evidence. 



Vie ceramic situation reveals an interest- 
ing combination of typical Navaho coni- 
cal-bottomed, unpainted cooking pots; 
typical Puebloid wares of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. ..and the ware 
known as Gobernador polychrome, pre- 
sumably Navaho-made but Pueblo in- 
spired. .Judging from the large quantity of 
potsherds, the variety of wares, and their 
generally excellent quality, this was a pe- 
riod of ceramic florescence for the 
Navahos, who were possibly inspired, no 
doubt, by their skilled and versatile Pueblo 
neighbors (Keur 1944:85). 

From her discussion, it is clear that Keur viewed 
the pueblo-style masonry architecture as convincing 
proof that the pueblitos were built by Pueblo refu- 
gees, and the differential distribution of glazeware 
sherds strengthened this conviction. Thus the pre- 
dominance of Navajo pottery at the pueblitos, the 
hogans associated with those sites, and the occur- 
rence of Puebloan painted wares at hogan sites were 
necessarily perceived as evidence of the close inter- 
action of Navajo and Pueblo refugees. The under- 
lying basis for her interpretations, however, was not 
archeological evidence but historical references to 
Pueblo refugees. 

Vie sites in the Gobernador area differ 
from all other eighteenth century Navajo 
sites investigated to date in the close asso- 
ciation of hogans with pueblitos. Both 
house types clearly maintain their identity 
and the situation suggests either initial 
contact or temporary union. Vie location 
and character of many sites is defensive. 
Since many rebellious Puebloans fled 
north to escape Spanish reprisals at the 
end of the seventeenth century, as re- 
corded in the early chronicles, this is, in all 
likelihood, a refuge area, a place where the 
uprooted Puebloans joined the erstwhile 
hostile Navahos to hide out against a 
common foe (Keur 1944:85-86). 

The Gobernador Phase was formally defined dur- 
ing the Navajo Reservoir project "on the basis of 



The Archeological Evidence 



materials excavated by Keur (1944) and Farmer 
(1942) together with that observed and excavated 
from the Navajo Reservoir District" (Dittert 
1958:246). The major material traits listed for the 
phase included forked-stick, cribbed-log, and ma- 
sonry hogans; pueblitos, fortified sites, ramadas and 
sweatlodges; a ceramic assemblage with Dinetah 
Utility, Gobernador Indented, Gobernador and 
Frances Polychrome, and Pueblo tradewares; rock 
art with Puebloan motifs and recognizable yei and 
Twin War God figures (Schaafsma 1963); corn and 
beans; horses and sheep; and a small number of 
European trade goods (Dittert 1958; Dittert et al. 
1961; Eddy 1966; Hester 1962). 

Dates for the phase were based on three 
sources — intrusive Puebloan pottery, tree-ring 
dates from early Navajo sites in Gobernador Can- 
yon, and early Spanish documents (Dittert 1958:244; 
Eddy 1966:511). The dates for intrusive pottery at 
sites in the Navajo Reservoir area ranged from AD 
1300 to 1800, but there was a cluster between AD 
1650 and 1775 that seemed to encompass the 
Gobernador Phase occupation (Dittert 1958:244). 
Similarly, the tree-ring dates reported for sites in the 
Gobernador area ranged from AD 1714 to 1762 -I- , 
but most were earlier than AD 1750 (Eddy 
1966:460). Thus both lines of evidence suggested 
that the Gobernador Phase dated primarily to the 
eighteenth century. 

The beginning date for the Gobernador Phase 
was set at AD 1700, corresponding roughly to the 
1696 Pueblo rebellion. The end date was set at AD 
1775. Historical records suggested that Ute and 
Comanche raids forced the Navajo out of the upper 
San Juan drainage by the late 1700s (Hester 1962; 
Schroeder 1963; Vivian 1960), and the ceramic and 
tree-ring dates for early Navajo sites in the Dinetah 
were consistent with that documentary evidence. 

Following earlier researchers, pueblitos in the 
Navajo Reservoir District were interpreted as refu- 
gee pueblos. Only seven small pueblitos were found 
in the project area, though, each consisting of only 
one to four masonry rooms. Also, some architec- 
tural features typically associated with sites in the 
Gobernador and Largo drainages — masonry and 
cribbed-log hogans, tower pueblitos, defensive 
walls, and Spanish-style fireplaces — did not occur in 
the Navajo Reservoir District. There was not much 
evidence of European trade goods or domestic ani- 
mals. Given these differences, the researchers con- 



cluded that Gobernador Phase sites in the Navajo 
Reservoir District were slightly earlier than those in 
the Gobernador and Largo districts, and that the 
Navajo Reservoir District may have been at the 
extreme northern edge of the area inhabited by ref- 
ugees following the Pueblo Revolt (Dittert et al. 
1961; Hester and Shiner 1963). 

Despite the low ratio of masonry structures to 
forked-stick hogans, Dittert (1958:246) argued that 
the Gobernador sites in the Navajo Reservoir Dis- 
trict were occupied by a mixed population of Nava- 
jos and Pueblo refugees, predominantly Jemez. He 
believed that these people lived side by side in an 
acculturative situation, and that Gobernador Phase 
culture was a blend resulting from this interchange. 
The primary archeological evidence supporting this 
interpretation centered on the ceramic assemblage. 

In the Navajo Reservoir District, Jemez Black-on- 
white and Rio Grande Glazes E and Fwere the most 
common tradewares. Lesser amounts of Koytyiti 
Glaze Polychrome, Tewa Polychrome, and Puname 
Polychrome also suggested trade with the Rio 
Grande Pueblos, while sherds of Hawikuh Glaze 
Polychrome and Jeddito Yellow reflect contact with 
the Acoma-Zuni and Hopi areas, respectively (Eddy 
1966:404-407). Although indigenous wares were 
predominant, Dittert speculated that Gobernador 
Indented was a local adaption of Jemez culinary 
wares and that Gobernador Polychrome might have 
been developed by Pueblo refugees, with Gobern- 
ador-Navajo (Frances) Polychrome marking the 
first Navajo attempts at making painted vessels 
(1958:245-246). 

Hester (1962:89) shared this perception of the 
Gobernador Phase as a period when Navajo culture 
was profoundly altered by Puebloan influence. 

Following defeat at the hands of the Span- 
ish in 1692 and again in 1696, their numer- 
ous Pueblo Indians fled north and lived 
with the Navajos. TJiis was a period of 
intensive acculturation, with the Navajos 
adopting the Puebloan style of architec- 
ture, pottery making, weaving, additional 
ceremonial elements, origin myth, clans, 
matrilineal descent, and matrilocal resi- 
dence. Much intermarriage occurred, 
with numerous Pueblo Indians never re- 
turning to their original homes. 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Hester relied heavily on documentary evidence to 
support this interpretation. Specifically, he cites 
Forbes (1960) in arguing that numerous Pueblo 
groups — including residents of San Cristobal, 
Pecos, Santa Clara, Jemez, and Cochiti — sought ref- 
uge with the Navajo during the 1696 rebellion. He 
also references Hodge et al. (1945) as evidence that 
these refugees were still residing with the Navajos in 
1705 and Navajo tradition, which indicated that 
some Navajo clans originated with Pueblo ancestry. 

Carlson (1965) further expanded this theme in his 
report describing Morris's 1915 excavations at 
pueblito sites in the Gobernador District. Carlson 
notes the problem encountered in fully accepting 
Kidder's suggestion that the pueblitos were refugee 
pueblos is that the tree-ring dates and ceramic asso- 
ciations indicate that the large masonry sites were 
not built until some 20 years after the 1696 rebellion. 
Instead, the tree-ring dates from the earliest large 
pueblitos agree with documentary evidence for the 
Ute and Comanche advance of 1716 to 1720. He 
further recognized that the construction of these 
large pueblitos marked a shift in Gobernador Phase 
settlement patterns. 

TJie earlier pattern is one ofliogan clusters 
dispersed over a wide area sometimes as- 
sociated with small masonry' pueblitos in 
defensive locations. Tliis picntre is pre- 
sented by the data from the sun'ey in the 
Navajo Rese/voir District.. .and this pat- 
tern can also be seen in the Gobernador 
District. TJie later pattern. ..is one of large 
masonry citadels up to 40 rooms in size at 
which, one suspects, the inhabitants of 
hogan clusters in the vicinity gathered dur- 
ing times of stress (Carlson 1965:101). 



and Navajo traits, but simply indicates that we must 
look elsewhere for a slightly earlier occupation by a 
mixed Pueblo and Navajo group. Such an occupa- 
tion has been found in the Navajo Reservoir Dis- 
trict" (Carlson 1965:98). 

Following Dittert and Hester, Carlson argued 
that early Gobernador sites in the Navajo Reservoir 
District were occupied by a mixed population, which 
formed as the result of the Pueblo rebellion of 1696. 
To support this argument, he cites Forbes (1960) as 
indicating that Jemez groups, Tewas from Santa 
Clara and San Ildefanso, and Keres from Cochiti 
joined the Navajos during the 1696 rebellion. 

Tlie strictly archaeological evidence that 
the migrants to the Navajo came from the 
Rio Grande rather than from other 
puebloan areas rests primarily on the pot- 
tery. Tlie shape of the vessels as well as 
the decorative style of Gobernador Poly- 
chrome are indicative of Rio Grande 
prototypes. Tlie designs are similar to 
those on Jemez Black-on-white for the 
most part, and in a few instances are iden- 
tical. I suspect that there are strong resem- 
blances to early Tewa Polychrome (Mera 
1939:11), also, but there is no adequate 
collection of the latter type with which to 
make comparisons. Tlie color pattern of 
Gobernador Polychrome, black and red 
on yellow or buff, was widespread 
throughout the Puebloan area by 1700, 
although either late Rio Grande Glaze V 
(Kidder and Shepard 1936:250-253) or 
early Tewa Polychrome could be the spe- 
cific source of the color pattern as well as 
of the vessel shapes (Carlson 1965:100). 



Because Navajo-Spanish relationships were rela- 
tively peaceful during the middle eighteenth cen- 
tury, Carlson concluded that the pueblitos were built 
lor defense against Ute and Comanche raiders, and 
not the Spanish. This evidence effectively demon- 
strated the fallacy of interpreting the pueblitos as 
refugee pueblos, but he continued to view the 
Gobernador Phase as a period of intensive Navajo- 
Pueblo interaction. "This information does not in- 
validate Kidder's interpretation since the culture 
shown in the sites is obviously a mixture of Pueblo 



Carlson (1965:104) further noted that references 
to the return of refugees from the Navajo area 
seemed lacking in both the historical documents and 
native tradition. Rather, the traditional evidence 
indicated that the "Hemis became Navajo in Long 
Canyon" (Reiter 1938) and that the Navajo Black 
Sheep and Coyote Pass clans originated from 
Puebloan progeny. Thus, it seemed likely to him that 
the eighteenth century occupation of the Gobern- 
ador District represented a southward shift of the 
mixed Navajo-Jemez-Tewa-Cochiti population that 



The Archeological Evidence 



occupied sites in the Navajo Reservoir District. By 
1750- 1775, when continued Ute and Comanche dep- 
redation forced the Navajo to abandon the Gobern- 
ador District, Carlson believed that any descendants 
of Pueblo refugees living with the Navajo were prob- 
ably culturally and socially Navajo and moved with 
them when the area was abandoned (Carlson 
1965:104). 

From this discussion, it is clear that Hester's and 
Carlson's interpretations represented a significant 
departure from earlier views of Navajo culture 
change during the Gobernador Phase. First it was 
recognized that the tree-ring and ceramic dates for 
the pueblitos were generally too late to warrant 
interpretation of those sites as refugee pueblos. In- 
stead the data suggested the pueblitos were built for 
defense against Ute and Comanche raids. Second, 
although masonry architecture continued to be ac- 
cepted as evidence of Puebloan influence, the occur- 
rence of intrusive Pueblo pottery and the attributes 
of Gobernador Polychrome emerged as the primary 
archeological data used to support arguments for an 
influx of Pueblo refugees. 

The most profound change, though, was in the 
inferred nature of Navajo-Pueblo acculturation. 
Hester and Carlson continued to interpret the 
Gobernador Phase as a period during which the 
Navajo adopted numerous aspects of Pueblo culture 
as a result of a massive influx of Pueblo refugees 
following the 1696 rebellion. While earlier scholars 
had viewed Navajo contact with Pueblo refugees as 
a brief period of intensive interaction, however, Hes- 
ter and Carlson asserted that a large number of 
Pueblo refugees had remained with the Navajos. 
Consequently, Gobernador Phase culture was seen 
as an amalgamation of Navajo and Pueblo popula- 
tions as well as of Navajo and Pueblo culture. 

Just as Kidder's article profoundly influenced ar- 
cheological research during the 1930s and 1940s, 
Hester (1962) and Carlson (1965) have become the 
standard references guiding Navajo archeology 
since the mid-1960s. Thus their interpretation of 
Navajo acculturation during the Gobernador Phase 
has become the dominant view (Bailey and Bailey 
1986; Brugge 1981, 1983; Kelley 1982; Van Valken- 
burgh 1974). As succinctly phrased by Bailey and 
Bailey (1986:15): "[ajlthough scholars have tended 
to view the Navajos as Athabaskans whose culture 
had absorbed Puebloan cultural trails, we prefer to 



see them as biological and cultural hybrids, neither 
Athabaskan nor Puebloan, but a product of both." 

Subsequent archeological research has provided 
httle data to warrant any significant revision of this 
hypothesis. Publication of the tree-ring dates col- 
lected from early Navajo sites in the Gobernador 
and Largo drainages during the Navajo Land Claim 
project (Stokes and Smiley 1963, 1969) provided 
additional support for Carlson's dating of the 
pueblito sites, as did Powers and Johnson's (1987) 
reassessment of that data. Indeed the 1690-1694 
dates obtained from Tapacito Ruin (Wilson and 
Warren 1974) raise again the issue of whether the 
appearance of masonry architecture in the Dinetah 
coincided with the arrival of Pueblo refugees. 

The point of this section, however, is that the 
archeological evidence for a large influx of Pueblo 
refugees never has been conclusive. Southwestern 
archeologists have rarely accepted the presence of 
small percentages of intrusive pottery as evidence 
that the people who manufactured that pottery ac- 
tually resided with the local group. Minor amounts 
of intrusive ceramics almost always are interpreted 
as evidence of exchange relations. Nor is it likely 
that the appearance of Gobernador Polychrome is 
linked to the influx of Pueblo refugees. The pottery 
itself exhibits an amalgam of Tewa, Jemez, Hopi, 
and Navajo attributes (Carlson 1965; Dittert et al. 
1961; Eddy 1966; Marshall 1985) that is most parsi- 
moniously explained as a Navajo impression of 
Pueblo pottery. Moreover, the dates from Tapacito 
Ruin suggest that it was fully developed by AD 
1690-1694, before the major exodus of Pueblo refu- 
gees from the Rio Grande. 

Similarly, the masonry architecture of the 
pueblitos is a mixture of Spanish, Pueblo, and Nav- 
ajo trails (Carlson 1965), with Spanish influence 
most obvious in the earliest pueblito form (Powers 
and Johnson 1987; Wilson and Warren 1974). 
Moreover, as Farmer (1942) observed, there are 
numerous examples of prehistoric Puebloan archi- 
tecture in Navajo territory thai could have served as 
models for the pueblitos. The Navajo also had 
ample opportunity to observe contemporary Pueblo 
and Spanish defensive architecture as visitors and 
traders, and from the uniquely instructive perspec- 
tive of an attacking force. There is no reason why 
the Navajo could not have duplicated these models 
without assistance from PucbU^ refugees. 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Although archeologists have chosen to interpret 
this evidence as indicating that a large number of 
Pueblo refugees were living among the Navajos after 
the Reconquest, it is equally consistent with an al- 
ternative hypothesis: that the Navajo incorporated a 
number of Puebloan and Spanish traits into their 
culture as a result of more than a century of aher- 
nately peaceful and hostile contact with Pueblo and 
Spanish groups in the Rio Grande area. It seems 
clear that the evidence which led researchers to 



favor the refugee hypothesis is not archeological but 
historical -the documentary evidence indicating 
that Pueblo refugees fled to Navajo country during 
the 1696 rebellion. Similarly, assertions that the 
Gobernador population was a mixture of Navajos 
and Pueblos are based on historical references and 
native traditions suggesting that many Pueblo refu- 
gees remained with the Navajo after the 
Reconquest. 



Chapter 2 

The Historical Evidence 



The major sources of historical information con- 
cerning the Spanish reconquest of New Mexico are 
Vargas's journal and various letters and documents 
relating to the campaign. These are summarized 
briefly by Forbes (1960) and in more detail by Es- 
pinosa (1942). The Pueblos moved to defensive 
positions following the 1680 revolt but, except for 
those who retreated to El Paso with the Spanish, 
there was probably little displacement of the native 
population. The various aborted attempts at recon- 
quest decimated the pueblos on the lower Rio 
Grande and in the Tiguex province and forced the 
abandonment of Isleta and the Southern Tiwa pueb- 
los of Sandia, Alameda, and Puaray. The recon- 
quest attempts had little effect on the upper Rio 
Grande pueblos, however. Nor did the events sur- 
rounding Vargas's 1692 expedition, the initial reset- 
tlement of New Mexico in 1693, or the 1694 rebellion 
cause those Pueblo groups to abandon the Rio 
Grande area. References to Pueblo refugees joining 
the Navajos relate primarily to the 1696 rebellion. 

Most of the information on Pueblo refugees 
comes from the testimony of prisoners captured 
during the rebellion. Not surprisingly, the evidence 
is sometimes contradictory, but collectively it pro- 
vides a fairly detailed picture of the movements of 
the rebellious pueblos. This information is summa- 
rized in terms of the major language groups. 

Tanos 

The testimony of Diego Xenome, cacique of 
Nambe, on 12 July indicates that the Tanos (South- 
ern Tewa) of San Cristobal joined Tewa groups on 
a butte near Chimayo (Espinosa 1942:250-252). Cit- 
ing this same source, Forbes (1960:266) reports that 
"it was said that the Tanos of San Crist6bal had 
already gone to the Navahos and thence to Zuiiis." 
That a small group of Tanos had moved to Zuni is 
confirmed by the testimony of other prisoners. An 
Acoma captured near Jemez reported that the 
Tanos were considered enemies of the Acoma, ex- 



cept for those who had fled to Zuni (Espinosa 
1942:259); two Zunis questioned by Vargas at Zia 
said there were 20 Tanos at Zuni (Espinosa 
1942:273); and a Keres prisoner captured at Laguna 
on 14 August reported about 40 Tanos and Tewas 
had gone to Zuni (Espinosa 1942:275). Most of the 
Tanos, though, remained in the region. 

Vargas attacked and dispersed the Tanos and 
Tewas at Chimayo on 2 July. On 15 July, the alcalde 
mayor of Santa Cruz, Roque Madrid, reported that 
most of the Tanos had left Taos. He amended this 
report in a later letter to Vargas, which indicated 
that a large number of Indians were moving from the 
mountains where the Tanos had their rancherias 
toward the sierra of Santa Clara (Espinosa 1942: 
264-265). 

On 22 July, Captain Antonio Valverde located a 
group of Tewas and Tanos in the mountains beyond 
Nambe. According to a Cuyamungue captive taken 
in the subsequent skirmish, Tanos from San Cristo- 
bal and San Lazaro engaged the Spanish while the 
Tewa retreated. The Tanos then dispersed, some 
going to join the Navajo, others to Taos (Espinosa 
1942:266). On 27 August, however, Miguel Saxette, 
the native governor of San Juan, told Vargas that a 
few Tanos from San Cristobal were hiding in the 
mountains (Espinosa 1942:278) but most had gone 
to Hopi (Forbes 1960:270). Vargas did find some 
Tano families at Taos in late September (Espinosa 
1942:284; Forbes 1960:270-271), a few of whom later 
tried to escape to the Plains with the Picuris. 

Early in 1697, Vargas resettled the pueblo of 
Santa Cruz de Galisteo with remnants of the Tano 
from San Cristobal and San Lazaro (Espinosa 
1942:303), presumably the families from Taos and 
those that had remained in the mountains. This 
pueblo was abandoned in 1793 and the handful of 
survivors went to Santo Domingo (Simmons 
1979:187). As reported by Miguel Saxette, the main 
group of Tanos — evidently the ones that were ini- 
tially said to have gone to the Navajos fied to Hopi. 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Tewas 



Diego Xenome's testimony and records of the 
council of war at Santa Cruz (Espinosa 1942:258) 
indicate that the Tewa from Nambe, Cuyamungue, 
Pojoaque, and Jacona were on a steep cerro near 
Chimayo at the beginning of the 1696 rebellion. The 
Tewa from San Juan were at El Embudo and at the 
"caja" of the river five to six leagues from Santa Cruz; 
those from Santa Clara were in the mountains facing 
their pueblo; and those from San Ildefonso were 
scattered through the mountains facing their pueblo, 
on the opposite side of the river. 

In mid-June, Governor Domingo of Tesuque ar- 
rived in Santa Fe and informed Vargas that warriors 
from Santa Clara and San Ildefonso, under the com- 
mand of Naranjo, were planning to attack Tesuque 
to punish Domingo for remaining loyal to the Span- 
ish. On 17 June, Vargas moved his army to Tesuque, 
causing the rebel force to retreat (Espinosa 
1942:255-256) and, on 2 July, he attacked and dis- 
persed the rebels gathered in Chimayo. 

By mid-July, Roque Madrid reported to Vargas 
that the scattered inhabitants of San Juan were in 
four rancherias at El Embudo de Cochiti, and their 
governor had gone to visit the Navajo in an effort to 
obtain corn. As mentioned. Captain Valverde at- 
tacked a group of Tewas and Tanos in the mountains 
beyond Nambe on 22 July. According to the 
Cuyamungue captive taken in that battle, these Tewa 
were the inhabitants of Nambe, Pojoaque, 
Cuyamunque, and Jacona. After their retreat to the 
mountain tops, the prisoner said some of the Nambe 
elected to remain in the mountains and others, along 
with the Cuyamunque, went to Taos. The Pojoaque 
and Jacona were said to be on their way to join the 
Navajo. The next day, Vargas attacked Naranjo's 
group at El Embudo. Naranjo was killed and the 
rebels dispersed (Espinosa 1942:267-268). 

During August, Vargas launched a campaign 
against Acoma, and details concerning the where- 
abouts of the Tewa are sketchy. A Jemez Indian 
captured by Miguel de Lara indicated the Tewa 
were now living in front of Los Pedernales on the 
Chama River (Espinosa 1942:274). The Zunis ques- 
tioned by Vargas at Zia said there were two Tewa 
families at Zuni but they were moving to Hopi. On 
14 August, a Keres from Cochiti captured at Laguna 
said there were no Tewa at Acoma, but a second 
Keres from San Marcos indicated there were. Both 



prisoners agreed a few Tewa were at Zuni (Forbes 
1960:268-269). Finally, on 27 August, Miguel Sax- 
ette told Vargas six families from San Juan remained 
in the mountains, while the rest had gone to Taos. 
He further reported a few Tewas from Pojoaque 
remained in the mountains, and the Santa Clara had 
left to join the Hopis and Navajos. 

Vargas found a number of Tewas at Taos during 
his late September campaign, presumably those 
from Cuyamungue, San Juan, and a few Nambe. 
Some of this group later fled to the Plains with the 
Picuris (Espinosa 1942:287). Beginning in mid-Oc- 
tober, small groups of Tewas gradually emerged 
from the mountains and returned to their pueblos. 

On 11 November, Roque Madrid reported to 
Vargas that 17 men and 36 women had returned to 
San Ildefonso, but the rest were reported to be with 
the Hopis and Navajos. There were 12 men and 19 
women and children at Jacona, and those still in the 
mountains were returning. Nambe also was being 
resettled (Espinosa 1942:296; Forbes 1960:272). In 
a letter to the viceroy dated 24 November, Vargas 
asserted that the Tewa pueblos had been reduced 
and only the inhabitants of Santa Clara, Pojoaque, 
and Cuyamungue remained free. On 28 November, 
he reported that the Santa Clara had fled to many 
places — some to Hopi and Zuni, some to Acoma, 
"others to the next nations [from their pueblo] and 
surrounding neighbors of the Apaches of Navajo, 
Embudo, and Sierra de los Pedernales" (Forbes 
1960:272). 

From these accounts, it appears the Tewas of San 
Juan, Nambe, and Jacona remained in the region 
during the rebellion and gradually returned to their 
villages during the winter of 1696-1697. The inhab- 
itants of Cuyamungue can be traced to Taos and, 
since Vargas reported that this pueblo was not re- 
duced, it is likely that they were among the Tewas 
who fled with the Picuris. Some of the Tewas of 
Pojoaque and San Ildefonso apparently sought ref- 
uge in the mountains, and a few of the latter returned 
to their pueblo in November 1696. Most of the 
inhabitants of San Ildefonso are reported to have 
joined the Hopis and the Navajos, however, and 
there is one report that the Pojoaque fled to the 
Navajo. Finally, Miguel Saxette reported that the 
Santa Clara left to join the Hopis and the Navajos, 
while Vargas indicated they had sought refuge at 
Hopi, Zuni, Acoma, and among the Apaches of 
Navajo, Embudo, and Sierra de los Pedernales. 



10 



The Historical Evidence 



In other contexts, "Embudo" is used in referring 
to the Embudo Creek area near Picuris. Thus 
"Apaches of Embudo" is probably a synonym for the 
Olleros, bands of Jicarilla Apaches who were living 
in the mountains north of Abiquiu (Tiller 1983). The 
reference to the Sierra de los Pedernales is also 
interesting because of the testimony of Lara's Jemez 
prisoner, who reported that the Tewas were living in 
front of Los Pedernales. Wozniak (1986) argues 
cogently that the Navajos considered the Piedra 
Lumbre area to be part of their territory but that they 
did not live there. Thus there is a possibility that 
some of the references to the Tewas fleeing to the 
land of the Navajo actually refer to the retreat of the 
rebels to Los Pedernales, a location within Navajo 
territory but some distance from Navajo population 
centers. 

Keresans 

The Keresan pueblos of Zia, Santa Ana, and San 
Felipe remained loyal to the Spanish during the 1696 
revolt but Acoma, Cochiti, Santo Domingo, and La 
Cienguilla joined the rebellion. In 1694 Vargas de- 
stroyed the pueblo on Horn Mesa used by the 
Cochiti as a refuge, so when the 1696 revolt began, 
the Keres from Cochiti, Santo Domingo, and prob- 
ably La Cieneguilla moved into the mountains facing 
that ruined pueblo. Vargas and his forces made 
three forays into these canyons between 11 and 13 
July, seizing livestock and caches of maize, but the 
rebels retreated after his first attack (Espinosa 
1942:261- 262). The Jemez questioned by Lara in 
early August said that all of the Keres from Cochiti 
had gone to Acoma. This information was partly 
corroborated by the prisoners captured at Laguna 
on 14 August, who reported that there were 80 
Cochiti and 25 Santo Domingo at Acoma. The pris- 
oners further indicated that others from Cochiti 
were at Embudo de Cochiti. Vargas's campaign 
against Acoma was unsuccessful and it remained a 
Keres stronghold throughout the rebellion (Es- 
pinosa 1942:274-277). 

Forbes (1960:270), citing the 27 August testimony 
of Miguel Saxette, asserts that about half of the 
Keres from Cochiti went to the Hopis or Navajos. 
Espinosa's description of this same testimony indi- 
cates a large number of Cochiti were among those 
"hiding in the mountains, from where they were 
attempting to gather a few ears of maize and beans 



in their abandoned fields" (1942:279). The latter is 
probably a more accurate interpretation of the re- 
cords, since reports sent to Vargas from Bernalillo 
in November indicate that "the dispersed Indians 
from Cochiti were about to submit, and Acoma also 
desired peace" (Espinosa 1942:296). 

In summary, the records suggest that the vast 
majority of Keres from the rebellious pueblos either 
retreated to Acoma or remained in the mountains. 
During the winter of 1697- 1698, most of the refugees 
at Acoma established themselves at three new pueb- 
los north of Cubero Creek near Laguna (Espinosa 
1942:341-342). The other Keres groups gradually 
returned to Cochiti and Santo Domingo. 

Towas 

The Towa speakers in the Jemez region occupied 
two pueblos in 1696 — San Diego del Monte y 
Nuestra Seiiora de los Remedios, which was located 
on a low mesa extending from the base of the peiiol 
between Guadalupe and San Diego canyons, and 
San Juan de los Jemez at Walatowa, the site of 
present-day Jemez Pueblo (Bloom and Mitchell 
1938; Hodge et al. 1945:278). At the beginning of 
the rebellion, the inhabitants of San Diego del 
Monte abandoned their pueblo on the first mesa and 
moved to Mashtiashinkwa (Astialakwa), a pueblo on 
the adjacent peiiol. Here they drove off an attack by 
Spanish forces under Don Fernando de Chavez, 
losing 32 warriors (Bloom and Mitchell 1938:107). 

In letters to Vargas on 1 July, Chavez and Miguel 
de Lara reported that Lara, along with soldiers re- 
cently sent to Zia, had been following the trail of a 
rebel group leading toward Acoma along the Sierra 
de Jemez when they were fired upon from a nearby 
mesa. In a running fight, the Spanish eventually 
defeated this rebel group which, according to an 
Acoma prisoner taken in the battle, consisted of 
"many Apaches de Nabajo and 45 Indians of the 
pefiol of Acoma of his nation and those of the 
Cochiti and Xemes" (Forbes 1960:267). 

This defeat proved decisive, and active resistance 
by the Jemez ceased. Mashtiashinkwa was aban- 
doned and the Jemez there scattered "some [mov- 
ing] through the Valle region, and beyond to Cochiti 
and even to Taos; others northwest to the 'Apaches 
de Navajo,' to Hopi, to Acoma. Some Oed at first 
only 'to the pueblo of the mesa of San Juan' which 
lay three leagues north of the pefiol. To this retreat 



11 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



fled also some of the Jemez who at this time com- 
pletely abandoned the San Juan mission" (Bloom 
and Mitchell 1938:107). 

Bloom and Mitchell (1938:100) identify "the 
pueblo on the mesa of San Juan" as Amoxiumqua, a 
ruin located eight miles north of San Diego del 
monte, west of the head of Virgin Canyon (cf . Rieter 
1938:82-83). Reiter suggests this pueblo was one of 
the most important Jemez communities at the begin- 
ning of Spanish influence in the region, and it is 
mentioned as a visita in the early 1620s (Bloom and 
Mitchell 1938:92). By about 1628, though, 
Benavides congregated the Jemez at two pueblos: 
"San Joseph [Guiusewa], which is still stand- 
ing.. .[and] San Diego, of the Congregation, which for 
this purpose, we founded anew, bringing thither 
what Indians there were of that nation who were 
going about astray" (in Reiter 1938:34). 

Following the Pueblo Revolt, Amoxiumqua was 
apparently reoccupied by Jemez from the deserted 
San Diego del Congregacion (Walatowa) and Keres 
from Santo Domingo (Bloom and Mitchell 
1938:100). These Jemez remained on the mesa of 
San Juan through the 1694 rebellion, but they re- 
turned to their old pueblo at San Diego — now re- 
named San Juan de los Jemez — before March 1696 
(Bloom and Mitchell 1938:104). Evidently 
Amoxiumqua was the refuge pueblo for the Jemez 
congregated at Walatowa, so it is not surprising that 
they retreated there following Lara's victory. 

On 3 or 4 August, Vargas sent Lara with a force 
of 12 soldiers, Indian allies, and six pack mules and 
muleteers to search for maize caches in the Jemez 
region (Espinosa 1942:274). The accounts of this 
foray are somewhat conflicting, but it is clear that 
both Mashtiashinkwa and Amoxiumqua were aban- 
doned. Bloom and Mitchell report the Spaniards 
searched in vain throughout the mountains and can- 
yons for pueblos and hidden caches of corn, but saw 
only one Jemez warrior who told them his people 
were going to Apache country to live as soon as the 
green corn was ready for harvesting (1938:107). 
Espinosa's account, based on an 8 August entry in 
Vargas's journal, indicates that Lara returned to Zia 
on 8 or 9 August with about 100 fanegas of maize 
found in some caves in the vicinity of the mesa of San 
Juan pueblo. Espinosa also indicates that Lara's 
force captured a Jemez prisoner on the mesa who 
said that all of the Jemez had gone to Acoma, except 



for a small number from both San Juan and San 
Diego who were living in the mountains. The Keres 
captured at Laguna on 14 August indicated there 
were only five Jemez families at Acoma, however. 

Researchers since Bandelier have accepted the 
accounts of this foray as evidence that the Jemez 
temporarily abandoned their homeland in the sum- 
mer of 1696. It should be recognized, though, that 
Lara's mission was not to locate the rebellious Jemez 
but to secure provisions for the campaign against 
Acoma. Given this objective and the duration of the 
foray (5-7 days), it is likely the search was limited to 
the vicinity of San Juan, San Diego del Monte, and 
the two refuge pueblos known to the Spanish — 
Mashtiashinkwa and Amoxiumqua. Consequently, 
Lara's report does not necessarily indicate the entire 
Jemez territory had been vacated. 

Vargas does not mention finding any Jemez at 
Taos in late September (Espinosa 1942:283-284). 
Neither is there any specific reference to Jemez 
groups joining the rebel Keres, although this seems 
likely given the coresidence of Jemez and Santo 
Domingo at Amoxiumqua following the Pueblo Re- 
volt, the Jemez-Keres alliance at the start of the 1696 
rebellion, and Bandelier's comments regarding the 
traditional relationship between Jemez and Cochiti 
(Lange et al. 1975:154-155). According to Espinosa 
(1942:279) Miguel Saxette's testimony indicated a 
large number of Jemez remained in the mountains, 
although Forbes (1960:270) cites this same docu- 
ment in asserting that about half of the Jemez had 
fled to the Hopis and Navajos. Finally, in letters to 
the viceroy dated 24 and 28 November, Vargas lists 
the two Jemez pueblos among those not reduced, 
stating that many of the Tanos, Jemez, and Tewas of 
Santa Clara were now living at Zuni, Acoma, and the 
Moqui pueblos, and others had joined the Navajo 
(Espinosa 1942:297). 

Jemez oral history also provides some informa- 
tion on the refugees. Parsons's (1925:3) discussion 
of these legends — the source most commonly cited 
by archeologists (e.g., Carlson 1965; Reiter 1938) — 
is limited to a footnote commenting on reports that 
the Jemez fled to the Navajos after being defeated 
by Lara's force. "Of this there is still tradition. 'The 
Hemis became Navaho in Long Canyon 
(gy'a'wohmu, stone canyon).' See also Kidder, 
1920, p. 328." Sando (1982:121), however, provides 
additional data. 



12 



The Historical Evidence 



[T]he Hemish fled with their families to 
th eir an cestral homeland in th e north west, 
Canon Largo, or Gy'a-wahmu ("stone 
canyon "). Others went to Anyii-kwi-nu 
("lion-standingplace ") to the west in Nav- 
ajo country. Many also fled to the Hopi 
country.. .Many of the people who fled ev- 
idently lived among the Navajos for many 
years before they returned; others never 
returned, but became apart of the Dineh, 
with Hemish tradition. 

The reference to Anyu-kwi-nu is particularly in- 
teresting in this context. Anyu-kwi-nu is one of the 
formerly-occupied Jemez pueblos listed by Bande- 
lier and by Hodge et al. (1945:275). Bandelier 
(1890-1892ii:207) also describes a Jemez tradition 
that "the people of Amoxiumqua dwelt first at the 
lagune of San Jose, seventy-five miles to the north- 
west of Jemez, and that they removed thence to the 
pueblo of Aiiu-quil-i-jui, between the Salado and 
Jemez. In both of these places are said to be the 
ruins of former villages." Given the association be- 
tween Amoxiumqua and Walatowa discussed pre- 
viously, it would appear that the Jemez congregated 
at San Juan de los Jemez in 1696 probably included 
descendants of the original inhabitants of 
Amoxiumqua. Consequently, when the rebellious 
Jemez abandoned Amoxiumqua, it seems reason- 
able to assume that some segment of this group 
would opt to return to Anyu-kwi-nu, just as other 
Jemez apparently fled to their ancestral homeland 
in the north. 

Bandelier reports that Anyu-kwi-nu is situated 
between the Rio Salado and Rio Jemez, north of 
Jemez, which is generally consistent with Sando's 
placement of the pueblo to the west of Jemez. This 
location best describes the Ojo del Espiritu Santo 
area, but it could also be applied to the Rio Cebolla 
or Rio de las Vacas drainage, an area that Sando 
indicates was occupied by the Jemez before they 
moved into their historical range (1982:10). In ei- 
ther ca.se, any Jemez refugees at Anyu-kwi-nu were 
east of the Continental Divide some distance from 
late seventeenth-century Navajo population centers. 

In recounting the Jemez origin myths, Sando in- 
dicates the Hemish emerged from the underworld 
"via a lake called Hoa-.sjcla, now known as Stone or 
Boulder Lake, on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation" 



(1982:4), and after their emergence from the lake 
"the Hemish lived for untold centuries within sixty 
or seventy miles of Hoa-sjela" (1982:6). This tradi- 
tion is consistent with Sando's reference to Largo 
Canyon as the ancestral homeland of the Jemez, and 
also suggests that the center of that ancestral home- 
land lay east of the Continental Divide. This leaves 
open the possibility that some of the Jemez groups 
that fled northward might have remained on the 
eastern fringes of Navajo territory. 

The Jemez did not begin returning to their pueb- 
los before 1703 (Sando 1979:422). By 12 January 
1706, Fray Juan Alvarez indicates that "there are 
about 300 Christian Indians [at the mission of San 
Diego de Jemez]. ..and others keep coming down 
from the mountains where they are still in insurrec- 
tion" (Hackett 1937:376). This report and similar 
statements by Escalante (Wozniak 1985) corrobo- 
rate the testimony of Miguel Saxette and suggest the 
largest portion of the Jemez refugees remained in 
Sierra de Jemez during the rebellion. 

Refugees at Hopi 

From the historical evidence summarized above, 
it appears that most of the Tanos; most of the Tewas 
from Santa Clara; some Tewas from San Ildefonso, 
Pojoaque, and Jacona; and some Jemez fled from 
the upper Rio Grande during the 1696 revolt. There 
is good evidence a few Tanos went to Zuni, and a few 
who fled to Taos or hid in the mountains were later 
settled at Santa Cruz de Galisteo. The majority, 
though, were first reported to have joined the Nav- 
ajos, then it was said that they had gone to Hopi. 
Hopi-Tewa tradition, which indicates that Hano was 
settled by Southern Tewa from the Galisteo Basin 
(Dozier 1966:17-19), supports the latter report, as 
do the Spanish historical records. In 1701, Governor 
Don Pedro Rodriguez Cubero led a punitive expe- 
dition to Hopi after learning of the destruction of 
Awatovi. 

With his anned force he killed some Indi- 
ans and captured others, but not being 
very well prepared to face the multitudes 
of the enemy, he withdrew and returned 
without being able to reduce ihcin, espe- 
cially as the M()(|iii had with them the 
Tauos [Tanos] Indians, who after com- 



13 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



mining outrages, sought or had taken 
refuge among them and had risen at 
their command (Hackett 1937:386; em- 
phasis added). 

Vargas was fairly specific in indicating the Tewas 
from Santa Clara sought refuge at Hopi, Zuni, 
Acoma, and among the Apaches of Navajo, 
Embudo, and Sierra de los Pedernales. The dispo- 
sition of the Tewas from San Ildefonso and Pojoaque 
is less certain. By early November 1696, a few fam- 
ilies had returned to San Ildefonso, but the rest were 
said to be with the Hopi and Navajo. Similarly, 
Miguel Saxette reported a few families from 
Pojoaque were hiding in the mountains in late 
August, while a Cuyamungue captive testified that 
they went to join the Navajos. 

Reports concerning the Jemez are also ambigu- 
ous. There is good evidence that a few Jemez fami- 
lies fled to Acoma, and some probably joined the 
Keres rebels at Embudo de Cochiti. There are also 
reports, consistent with Jemez oral tradition, that 
some refugees fled to Navajo. Others fled to Hopi. 
From the early eighteenth century records, though, 
it appears that most of the Jemez retreated deep into 
the mountains where they remained for several years 
after the rebellion. 

Interestingly, most references to these refugees 
indicate they fled to the "Navajos and the Hopis", 
and not just to the Navajos. Given this phrasing, it 
seems prudent to look for Tewa and Jemez refugees 
at Hopi before accepting these reports as evidence 
for a massive influx of Pueblo refugees into the 
Dinetah. As summarized by Bandelier: 

TJie Pueblo outbreak of 1693 affected the 
Moquis also. Tliey had no occasion to 
participate in it directly, as the seat of war 
was too remote from their homes. ..but 
fugitives from the rebellious villages, 
chiefly Tehuas and Jemez, quartered 
themselves among them. ..TJie Tehua out- 
break of 1696 made matters worse, in fur- 
nishing new accessions to the colony of 
Tehua refugees. Tliey founded a pueblo 
of their own, between Auha-tuyba and the 
other Moqui towns, but in closer proximity 
to the latter (in Brew 1949:20). 



The records of Vargas's 1692 expedition to Hopi 
mentions the Hopis who met him at Walpi were 
accompanied by some Utes and Apache Coninas 
(Espinosa 1942:220), but there is no indication that 
refugees from the Rio Grande pueblos were then at 
Hopi. Stanislawski (1979:600), following Fewkes 
and Mindeleff, suggests the Tano did not arrive at 
Hopi until late in 1700 or in 1701, since they are not 
mentioned in the accounts of the destruction of 
Awotovi. Other Tewa refugees apparently arrived 
earlier. 

Hopi tradition includes frequent references to the 
Asa (Tansy Mustard) Phratry, who are recognized 
as a Tewa group distinct from the Tanos, and who 
are traditionally regarded as the founders of 
Sichomovi (Stanislaski 1979:600). According to 
these traditions (Schroeder 1985:108-109), the Asa 
left their village in the Chama area and migrated 
west via Santo Domingo, Laguna, and Zuni. When 
they arrived at First Mesa, the Asa are said to have 
settled at Coyote Water just under the gap on the 
east side. After the Asa repelled attacks by the Utes 
and later the Navajos, the Hopis allowed them to 
build on First Mesa near the present site of Hano 
but, after several drought seasons, they went to 
Topkabi (Canyon de Chelly) and lived among the 
Navajos. Sometime after the Tanos established 
their pueblo on First Mesa, the Asa quarreled with 
the Navajos and returned to First Mesa, joining the 
Tanos at Hano. Although Schroeder speculates the 
Asa migration might have occurred in the early sev- 
enteenth century, it more probably relates to the 
flight of Tewa refugees during the Reconquest. 

Schroeder tentatively identifies the Firewood 
people mentioned in Hopi tradition as being from 
Jemez (1985:108), and Fewkes (1900:604) indicates 
that Katci, the surviving chief of the Kokop (burrow- 
ing owl) clans, told him "his people originally came 
from the pueblo of Jemez, or the Jemez country, and 
that before they lived at Sikyatki, they had a pueblo 
in Keams Canyon." Taken literally, the latter refer- 
ence suggests an early Jemez migration but, given 
the Hopi practice of initially settling refugees at the 
base of First Mesa, it is possible that the Jemez 
arrived during the Reconquest and settled near the 
ruined pueblo of Sikyatki. In any event, we do know 
that a significant number of Jemez were living at 
Hopi after the 1696 revolt. On 30 April 1716, two 
warriors from Jemez and three Jemez Indians from 
Hopi appeared before Governor Phelix Martinez 



14 



The Historical Evidence 



seeking permission to take "twenty young men of the 
pueblo of San Juan de los Xemes...to bring out 
sixteen families of their nation [113 people] who are 
living in said province of Moqui, in the pueblo of 
Gualpi" (Bloom 1931:187). Whether this group 
comprised all of the Jemez refugees living at Hopi is 
unclear, but it is unlikely, given later reports. 

The Pueblo refugees at Hopi also included the 
Southern Tiwas from Sandia, Alameda, and Puaray. 
Hopi tradition indicates these refugees fled to Hopi 
after the Pueblo Revolt, where they settled at 
Payupki on Second Mesa. The residents of this 
pueblo are said to have returned later to their homes 
on the Rio Grande after a quarrel with Mosongnovi 
(Schreoder 1985:109). Sandia was burned by Gov- 
ernor Antonio de Otermin, reoccupled, and then 
burned again in 1681 during Otermin's attempted 
reconquest. In 1692, Vargas found that all three 
pueblos were abandoned, as they had been during 
the attempts at reconquest made in 1688 and 1689. 
Thus Southern Tiwa exodus occurred sometime be- 
tween 1682 and 1688 (Brandt 1979:345). 

A map of New Mexico prepared by Visitor Gen- 
eral Juan Miguel Menchero during his inspection 
tour in the 1740s (Simmons 1979:Figure 3) shows the 
"Mesas de los tiguas" situated northeast of the old 
pueblo of Shongopavi, which conforms to the loca- 
tion of Payupki. In 1742, Fathers Delgado and Pino 
brought 441 Indians back to the Rio Grande from 
Hopi. These Indians were settled at Jemez and 
Isleta but, on 24 November 1742, Fray Cristobal 
Yreata asked that they be granted their former 
pueblos, such as Parjarito (Puaray?), Alameta, and 
Zandia, "which were the ones they possessed when 
they revolted in the year 1680" (Hackett 1937:389- 
390). 

According to Father Juan Sanz de Lezaun's ac- 
count. Fathers Delgado and Pino brought another 
large group of Indians from Hopi in 1745. 

ney having entered in the midst of the 
said civil strife among the Maquis [daily 
wars which they have with each other], 
many of these people came down to lake 
refuge with the fathers, all willing to follow 
them, hut the latter were prepared to lake 
away only five hundred persons, great and 
small. Because the said governor [Don 
Caspar de MendozaJ had not assisted 
Ihem with the necessary food, men, and 



animals, they could not bring out more 
than two thousand souls. ..Tlie governor 
put most of these people in Xemes and 
others in La Isleta (Hackett 1937:472). 

In 1747, Fray Miguel Menchero was sent to Hopi 
with an order from the viceroy to resettle the pueblo 
of Sandia. The pueblo was subsequently reoccupied 
by about 50 families, which Fray Menchero "took 
away from the apostates of Moqui, for they were 
fugitives and were excessively vexed in Moqui by 
those barbarous chieftains" (letter to the Franciscan 
Procurador General cited in Brew 1949:34; empha- 
sis added). 

Brew (1949) argues forcibly that most of the con- 
verts brought to the Rio Grande during this period 
were refugees and not Hopis, a contention generally 
supported by the documentary evidence presented 
in this document. Consequently, it appears that 
several thousand refugees from the Rio Grande 
pueblos sought refuge at Hopi. The Southern Tiwas 
apparently migrated to Hopi before the Recon- 
quest, and some Tewa and Jemez refugees seem to 
have left the Rio Grande in 1693 or 1694. The major 
population influx at Hopi, though, apparently oc- 
curred after the 1696 rebellion. 

Estimating the Size of the 
Refugee Population 

At the time of the Pueblo Revolt, the population 
of the New Mexico pueblos is estimated at 16,000 to 
17,000 (Simmons 1979:186; Wilson 1985:113), but it 
probably declined sharply over the next two de- 
cades. Although Otermin's attempts at reconquest 
were essentially bloodless, eight Tigua and Piro 
pueblos were burned and three others were sacked 
(Hackett 1942:ccx). This undoubtedly resulted in a 
number of indirect casualties among the affected 
pueblos. Otermin also brought 325 captives from 
Isleta back to El Paso, where they were permanently 
settled at Yselta del Sur. In 1689, Domingo Jironza 
Pctriz de Cruzate destroyed Zia in a bloody battle in 
which hundreds of the pueblo's inhabitants were 
killed, leaving only about 300 survivors (Espinosa 
1940:18; Hoebel 1979:408-409). 

Raids on the pueblos by the Utes, Navajos, and 
Apaches intensified after the retreat of the Spanish, 
and there was factional infighting among the pueblos 



15 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



themselves, both of which must have added to the 
death toll. Niel in Apuntes, 103, 6, also indicates that 
the Pueblos were afflicted with hunger and pesti- 
lence: "for seven years it rained ashes while for nine 
years no water fell, and the streams all dried up. The 
Tompiros were exterminated; very few Tiguas and 
Jemez survived..." (in Reiter 1938:37). The poten- 
tial losses resulting from this combination of factors 
are amply documented in early Spanish accounts. 

Lack of rain in 1640 combined with the 
destructive Apache raid of that year pro- 
duced widespread famine and 3,000 In- 
dian fatalities throughout the province. 
Other thousands perished in the drought 
and famine of 1663-1669 when Pueblo 
people were seen "lying dead along the 
roads, in the ravines, and in their huts" 
(Simmons 1979:184). 

The veracity of Kiel's statement concerning the 
Jemez is demonstrated by Vargas's account of the 
attack on the peiiol of Jemez on 24 July 1694 (Es- 
pinosa 1942:200-203). Vargas assaulted this strong- 
hold, which was held by the Jemez and their Santo 
Domingo allies, killing 84 and capturing 346. On 16 
August, two of the Jemez rebels arrived in Santa Fe 
offering submission. They reported that only 72 men 
and women had escaped during the attack. This 
suggests the combined Jemez and Santo Domingo 
force consisted of about 500 people. Assuming that 
a similar number of Jemez were residing at 
Amoxiumqua, it is evident the total Jemez popula- 
tion in 1694 numbered little more than 1,000 to 2,000. 
In contrast, Fray Vetancurt estimated there were 
5,000 Jemez in 1680 (Simmons 1979:185). The latter 
figure may be an overestimate but, even allowing for 
missionary zeal, it is clear that the Jemez population 
had been decimated. 

Given these losses and the flight of the Southern 
Tiwa, it is doubtful that the total population of the 
New Mexico pueblos numbered more than 10,000 to 
12,000 at the beginning of the 1696 rebellion. The 
first census taken after the Reconquest was made in 
January 1706 by Fray Alvarez, who estimated that 
the 11 missions and seven visitas in upper New Mex- 
ico were serving 8,840 Christian Indians (Espinosa 
1942:366). The documentary evidence presented 
earlier suggests that several thousand refugees were 
at Hopi. Again allowances must be made for mis- 
sionary zeal, and for the presence of the Southern 



Tiwa who migrated to Hopi before the Reconquest. 
Nevertheless, the large number of Tano, Tewa, and 
Jemez refugees at Hopi would account for most of 
the difference between the pre- and post-rebellion 
population estimates. 

Fray Alvarez also indicates the population of the 
upper Rio Grande pueblos in 1706 was being in- 
creased "from day to day by those who are coming 
down from the mountains where they live among the 
heathen and apostates" (Hackett 1937:372-373). 
The reference to apostates in this statement almost 
certainly refers to Pueblo groups who, like the Jemez 
referred to in the passage cited earlier, were still 
living in the mountains in insurrection. Thus only a 
fraction of the Pueblo refugees who had not gone to 
Hopi or returned to their pueblos by 1706 were living 
among the "heathen." Of those, only a fraction 
joined the Navajos, since the historical references 
indicate that the Pueblos also sought refuge among 
other Apachean groups. It would appear, therefore, 
that the Pueblo refugees who fled to the Navajos 
probably numbered in the low hundreds and not in 
the thousands, as many researchers have assumed. 

The Evidence for 
Pueblo Refugees 
Among the Navajos 

The primary evidence that Pueblo refugees re- 
mained with the Navajo is Navajo oral tradition, 
which indicates the origin of some clans can be 
traced to Pueblo ancestry. Hodge (1895:227-228), 
in an early attempt to correlate Navajo origin myths 
with historical sources, estimated that by about AD 
1650 the Navajo comprised 19 clans: the original 
Navajo, whom he believed were cliff dwellers; three 
Apache; two Yuman; one Keresan; one from north 
of the San Juan, possibly Shoshonean; one Ute fam- 
ily; one Tanoan; three Puebloan; and six of unknown 
origin. Later sources were more specific, suggesting 
that a number of the Navajo clans had their origins 
in Pueblo refugees who remained with the Navajo. 
These include the Jemez or "Coyote Pass" clan, the 
"Black Sheep" clan reportedly derived from San 
Felipe, the Zia clan, and the Zuni clan (Brugge 1983; 
Hester 1962; Van Valkenburgh and McPhee 1938; 
Vogt 1961). 

Undoubtedly, these traditions have some basis in 
fact. As Reiter (1938:177) observed for the Jemez 



16 



The Historical Evidence 



clan, however, its origin "may be accounted by only 
a single Jemez woman, the clan ancestress." The 
origin of the Mexican clan, for example, is attributed 
to a small number of captives taken during a raid on 
a Spanish settlement near Socorro (Amsden 1932; 
Hodge 1895; Van Valkenburgh 1974). A similar 
origin also seems likely for the Black Sheep, Zia, and 
Zuni clans. The inhabitants of Zia and San Felipe 
were allied with the Spanish during the Reconquest 
(Espinosa 1942), and had little reason for fleeing to 
the Navajo, while the Zunis were only peripherally 
involved in the 1696 revolt and Zuni was itself a 
refuge for rebels fleeing the Rio Grande. Curiously, 
there are no specific references to Tewa clans, al- 
though the documentary evidence suggests some 
Tewas from Santa Clara and Pojoaque joined the 
Navajos. Thus Navajo tradition does not necessarily 
provide evidence that any large number of Pueblos 
were incorporated into the Navajo population. Nor 
do these traditions necessarily indicate that the ori- 
gins of the Puebloan clans, with the possible excep- 
tion of the Coyote Pass clan (Van Valkenburgh 
1974:208), date to the late sixteenth century. Those 
inferences were made by scholars attempting to rec- 
oncile Navajo tradition with historical sources. 

Documentary evidence for Pueblo refugees re- 
maining in the Dinetah after the 1696 rebellion is 
limited. Hester (1962:22) and others cite records of 
the punitive expeditions of Roque Madrid as indi- 
cating that some Jemez remained with the Navajo as 
late as 1705. Only two statements were found relat- 
ing to these expeditions to support such a conclu- 
sion. In Madrid's journal, he describes the capture 
of two women (one Navajo, the other from Jemez) 
who were tortured to death in an attempt to deter- 
mine the location of the Navajo rancherias (McNitt 
1972:20). The second statement comes from 
Reeve's (1958:222) summary of the campaign. 

[77?^ Spanish] left destruction in their 
path, having burned com fields and de- 
stroyed huts of the Navajo people. Tliey 
brought home an assortment of spoils of 
war: captive women and children, skins, 
baskets, and some horses and sheep; and 
they also restored to their fomier homes 
certain Pueblo Indians, some of whom 
had been taken captive during the Pueblo 
uprisings of 1680 and the 1690's. TIte 
others were refugees. 



These statements indicate only that there were 
some Pueblo Indians among the Navajo in 1705. 
Some were refugees but others were captives taken 
during Navajo raids. There is no suggestion that any 
significant number of Jemez or other refugees had 
remained with the Navajos. 

The Rabal documents also include a statement by 
Bias Martin that, during an punitive expedition 
mounted between 1712 and 1715, "it seemed to him 
that there must be on the mesas more than 200 
Christian Indians of this kingdom" (Hill 1940:402). 
None of the other witnesses to this expedition men- 
tion Christian Indians, though, so there is no corrob- 
oration for this testimony. 

Finally, in his study of the early mission records, 
Brugge found references to five Pueblo women — 
two Jemez, two Tewa from Pojoaque, and one 
Keres — who had come from Navajo and who were 
married to Navajo men. 

Tlte baptismal records indicate three bap- 
tisms toward the end of August that were 
doubtless the direct result of the second 
campaign of 1705... [T]wo Navajo chil- 
dren were baptized at Zia. ..Another girl 
was baptized at Jemez on August 23 who 
was described as the daughter of an 
Apache father and of Catharina Ursula of 
Jemez who "came from Navajo..." 

Tlie next mention of the Navajos in the 
baptismal records is dated April 29, 1708, 
and is the record of the baptism at Jemez 
ofMicaela, the natural daughter of Maria 
Cuchee Neva, a Jemez woman "who 
came this same year fleeing the captivity 
in which she was among the Gentile Nav- 
ajos. " Wliether she had been taken cap- 
tive in a raid or was a refugee being held 
captive is not explained, but these two 
entries leave little doubt that there were 
Jemez among the Navajos at this time. 

Tliere were also Tewa, apparently. On 
June 2, 1709, three children, all under four 
years, were baptized at Nambe. Tlxeir 
mother was Juana, a "Tigua" (sic) from 
Pojoaque, but they had been "brought 
from Nabaxo. " Two other children of the 
same mother, probably older brothers. 



17 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



were baptized at Nambe on October 7. 
No mention of the fathers of any of these 
children was made in the baptismal en- 
tries and it is to be presumed that they were 
not baptized. If so, both the children bap- 
tized at Jemez and those baptized at 
Nambe were almost certainly half 
Navajo... 

In Januaty 17 10 three Indians whose par- 
ents were an "Apache" father and a Keres 
mother were baptized together at Zia. Tlie 
record states that "they came from 
Nabaxo." All were estimated to have 
been about 20 years old. If they had been 
brought back by one of the campaigns of 
1708-1709, the time lapse would be about 
right for them to have been catechized... 

On May 30, 1731, two children were bap- 
tized at Nambe. It was recorded that they 
and their mother came from Navajo and 
lived at Pojoaque. On July 1 another boy 
from Navajo, the son of gentile parents 
and resident at Pojoaque, was baptized at 
Nambe. He had been catechized and in- 
stnicted and may be an older brother of 
llie first two children (Brugge 1968:39- 
41). 

As Brugge emphasizes, these records indicate 
that some Jemez and Tewas were Hving with the 
Navajo in the early 1700s. Again, however, there is 
no indication that any large number of Pueblos re- 
mained with the Navajos. Neither is it clear that 
these women were refugees. Indeed, the only spe- 
cific reference describes one of the Jemez women as 
a captive of the Navajos. 

The Influence of Archeology on 
Historical Research 

A final and unexpected discovery resulting from 
this review of the historical records was the extent to 
which some historians were influenced by the inter- 
pretations of early archeologists. Two examples, in 
particular, seem germane to this discussion. Forbes 
(1960) is the primary historical source cited by both 
Hester and Carlson in discussing the flight of Pueblo 
refugees to the Navajo. In describing the influence 



of these refugees on Navajo culture, Forbes com- 
ments: 

Of at least equal significance is the knowl- 
edge of the large numbers of Pueblo Indi- 
ans who chose to live with the Navahos 
during this period. Tliese refugees, along 
with earlier ones, were to have a great 
impact on the Navaho way of life and 
religion, and many of them were to be 
absorbed into the Athapascan ethnic 
group by intermarriage. Archeologists 
have discovered many "pueblo "structures 
in Navaho country, associated with defen- 
sive towers and Navaho houses and dat- 
ing from post- 1700 to as late as c. 1770. 
Undoubtedly, many of the refiigees even- 
tually returned to their fonner pueblos 
after 1698, but it is clear that others chose 
to live with the Navaho Apaches for years, 
preferring life with the Athapascans to 
Spanish dictation (1960:270). 

The source of the knowledge that "large numbers 
of Pueblo Indians chose to live with the Navajos 
during this period" appears to be Keur's (1944) 
discussion of pueblito sites in the Gobernador 
area — the reference cited by Forbes in support of 
this passage. Given the differences in his and 
Espinosa's description of Miguel Saxette's testi- 
mony noted earlier, Keur's assessment of the arche- 
ological evidence may have led Forbes to 
overestimate the number of refugees that fled to the 
Navajos. Also, because Forbes was concerned pri- 
marily with the Navajo and not with the Pueblo 
refugees, he may have missed some of the contradic- 
tory testimony relating to the movement of Pueblo 
groups during the 1696 rebellion. 

Hester and Carlson also cite Hodge et al. (1945) 
in arguing that some of the Jemez who joined the 
Navajo in 1696 were still with them in 1705. Again it 
appears that these historians based their interpreta- 
tion of the documentary evidence partly on what 
they perceived to be corroborative archeological 
data. 

Some of [the Jemez] who joined the Nav- 
ajo were still with them when Roque de 
Madrid made an expedition against them 
in 1705. In this connection see Kidder, 
Ruins of the Historic Period in the 



18 



The Historical Evidence 



Upper San Juan Valley, in which the 
author very reasonably attributes these 
ruins to the Jemez, who seemingly went to 
the Navajo country in later years, there 
building pueblo houses. See also Stall- 
ings, cited below, who lists the dates of 
beams from pueblo ruins in the same 
canon ranging from about 1700 to about 
1752, and from other ruins in the San Juan 
drainage from about 1723 to 1754 (Hodge 
et al. 1945:278). 

Therefore, archeologists appear to have used his- 
torical data and historians, archeological data — 
each assuming the other's evidence was both 



conclusive and independently derived. Thus a cir- 
cularity developed in which archeologists initially 
based their interpretation of pueblito sites in the 
Dinetah on historical references to the flight of 
Pueblo refugees. Some historians then used this 
early archeological research to corroborate frag- 
mentary historical references to the flight of Pueblo 
refugees and to Pueblos living among the Navajos 
during the early eighteenth century. These histori- 
cal summaries, in turn, were cited by later archeolo- 
gists to support arguments that a large number of 
Pueblo refugees joined the Navajos during the 1696 
rebellion and many of these refugees remained with 
the Navajo permanently. 



19 



Chapter 3 

Summary and Conclusions 



It is argued here that the archaeological evidence 
for Pueblo refugees in the Dinetah was never con- 
clusive. Instead, archaeologists have relied on his- 
torical evidence as a basis for interpreting the 
Gobernador Phase as a period when Navajo culture 
was fundamentally altered by a massive influx of 
Pueblo refugees. The historical evidence that any 
large number of Pueblo refugees fled to the Navajos 
also appears equivocal, however. 

The documents relating to the 1696 rebellion in- 
clude one report that some Tewas from Pojoaque 
were on their way to join the Navajos and a statement 
that most of the Tewas from San Ildefonso had gone 
to the Hopis and the Navajos. Vargas also indicated 
that the Santa Clara scattered, some going to Hopi, 
Zuni, and Acoma, and "others to the next nations 
[from their pueblo] and surrounding neighbors of 
the Apaches of Navajo, Embudo, and Sierra de los 
Pedernales" (Forbes 1960:272). Finally, there is 
some evidence — supported by Jemez tradition — 
suggesting that some of the Jemez fled to the Nava- 
jos, while others went to Hopi. 

Taken in isolation, these reports suggest that seg- 
ments of three Tewa and two Jemez communities, 
somewhere on the order of a thousand individuals, 
may have sought refuge in the Dinetah. When the 
historical evidence from Hopi is considered, though, 
it appears that most of these Tewa and Jemez refu- 
gees joined the Hopis and not the Navajos. Indeed, 
the number of Pueblo refugees at Hopi seems to 
account for most of the difference between pre- and 
post- rebellion population estimates for the Rio 
Grande pueblos. Given this evidence, the refugee 
population in the Dinetah probably consisted of, at 
most, a few hundred individuals. 

The evidence that Pueblo refugees remained with 
the Navajos after the rebellion is even more limited. 
The primary documentation cited in support of this 
assertion is Roque Madrid's account of a punitive 
expedition in 1705. According to Reeve (1958:222), 
this expedition "restored to their former homes cer- 
tain Pueblo Indians, some of whom had been taken 



captive during the Pueblo uprisings of 1680 and the 
1690's. The others were refugees." There is also 
Bias Martin's questionable testimony, and refer- 
ences in the early mission records to five Pueblo 
women — two Jemez, two Tewa from Pojoaque, and 
one Keres — who had come from Navajo and who 
were married to Navajo men. 

Again, there is nothing in these records to support 
assertions that any significant number of refugees 
remained with the Navajos after the Reconquest. 
The evidence indicates only that an unspecified 
number of Pueblos were living with the Navajos 
during the early decades of the eighteenth century. 
Some of these Pueblos were refugees, but many 
appear to have been captives taken in Navajo raids 
on the Rio Grande settlements. The evidence pro- 
vided by Navajo oral tradition also seems inadequate 
to support this interpretation. 

Navajo oral tradition indicates that the origins of 
some clans — including the Jemez or "Coyote Pass" 
clan, the "Black Sheep" clan reportedly derived 
from San Felipe, the Zia clan, and the Zuni clan- 
can be traced to Pueblo ancestry. Except for the 
Coyote Pass clan, however, there appears to be noth- 
ing that necessarily links the origins of these clans to 
the Pueblo rebellions. In fact, it seems unlikely that 
the origins of the Black Sheep, Zia, and Zuni clans 
could be attributed to Pueblo refugees. Moreover, 
this evidence does not necessarily indicate that a 
large number of Pueblos were living with the Nava- 
jos, since the origins of Navajo clans require only the 
presence of a single clan ancestress. 

In summary, the Gobernador Phase has been de- 
scribed both as a period when Navajo culture was 
fundamentally altered by brief but intensive interac- 
tion between the Navajos and Pueblo refugees, and 
as the period during which Navajo culture emerged 
as an amalgamation of Alhapaskan and Puebloan 
population and culture. Neither of these interpreta- 
tions is defensible given the dearth of evidence that 
any large number of Pueblo refugees Hod to the 
Dinetah or that many refugees remained with the 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Navajos after the Reconquest. Although there is 
little question that Navajo culture was influenced by 
Puebloan culture, the source of that influence is 
more likely to be found in the long history of Navajo- 
Pueblo relations than in the influx of Pueblo refugees 
in the closing years of the seventeenth century. 

More importantly, it is a mistake to view Puebloan 
influence as the primary, if not the only, factor af- 



fecting Navajo culture change. The Gobernador 
Phase was a period during which the Navajo were 
forced to contend with Ute and Comanche maraud- 
ers, the permanent presence of the Spanish, and 
marked fluctuations in environmental conditions. 
All of these factors must be given equal consider- 
ation to understand the evolution of Navajo culture 
during the eighteenth century. 



22 



References Cited 



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Bloom, Lansing B. 

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Hester, James J. 

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Hill, W.W. 

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Hodge, Frederick Webb 

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Hodge, Frederick W., George P. Hammond, and Agapito Rey 

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Hoebel, E. Adamson 

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9, pp. 407-417, William G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 

Kelley, Klara B. 

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Allen and Ben A. Nelson, pp. ix-xii. Office of Contract Archeology, University of New Mexico, 
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Keur, Dorothy L. 

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Societ}' for American Archeolog\> 1. 

1944 A Chapter in Navajo-Pueblo Relations. American Antiquity 10:75-86. 

Kidder, Alfred V. 

1920 Ruins of the Historic Period in the Upper San Juan Valley, New Mexico. American Anthropol- 
ogist 22(4):322-329. 

Kidder, Alfred V. and Anna O Shepard 

1936 Tlie Potteiy of Pecos 2. Yale University Press, New Haven. 

Lange, Charles H., Carroll L. Riley, and Elizabeth M. Lange 

1975 Tlie Southwestern Journals ofAdolph F. Bandelier 1885-1S88. University of New Mexico Press 
and The School of American Research, Albuquerque and Santa Fe. 

Marshall, Michael P. 

1985 Tlie Excavation of the Coitez COi Pipeline Project Sites, 1982-1983. Office of Contract Archeol- 
ogy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 

McNitt, Frank 

1972 Navajo Wars, Military Campaigns, Slave Raids, and Reprisals. University of New Mexico Press, 
Albuquerque. 

Mera, Harry P. 

1938 Some Aspects of the Largo Cultural Phase, Northern New Mexico. American Antiquity 3:236-243. 

Parsons, Elsie C. 

1925 The Pueblo of Jemez. Phillips Academy Papers of the Southwestern Expedition No. 3. Yale 
University Press, New Haven. 

Powers, Margaret A. and Byron P. Johnson 

1987 Defensive Sites of Dinetah. Cultural Resource Series No. 2. USDI, New Mexico Bureau of Land 
Management, Albuquerque. 



25 



Navajo-Pueblo Interaction 



Rccvc, Frank D. 

1958 Navajo-Spanish Wars, 1680-1720. New Mexico Historical Review 33(3):205-231. 

Reiter, Paul 

1938 The Jemez Pueblo of Unshagi, New Mexico, Part I. University of New Mexico Bulletin No. 326. 
Albuquerque. 

Sando, Joe S. 

1979 The Pueblo Revolt. In "Southwest," edited by Alfonso Ortiz, Handbook of North American 
Indians, Vol. 9, pp. 194- 197, WiUiam G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, DC. 

1982 Nee Heniish: A History of Jemez Pueblo. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 

Schaafsma, Polly 

1963 Rock Art in the Navajo Reservoir District. Museum of New Mexico Papers in Anthroplogy No. 7. 
Santa Fe. 

Schroeder, Albert H. 

1963 Navajo and Apache Relationships West of the Rio Grande. El Palacio 70 (3):5-23. 

1985 Hopi Traditions and Rio Grande Pueblo Migrations. In "Prehistory and History of the South- 
west, Collected Papers in Honor of Alden C. Hayes," edited by Nancy Fox. Tlie Archeological Society 
of New Mexico 11. Ancient City Press, Inc., Santa Fe. 

Simmons, Marc 

1979 History of Pueblo-Spanish Relations to 1821. In "Southwest," edited by Alfonso Ortiz, Hand- 
book of NoHh American Indians, vol. 9, pp. 178-193, William G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithson- 
ian Institution, Washington, DC. 

Slanislawski, Michael B. 

1979 Hopi-Tewa. In "Southwest," edited by Alfonso Ortiz, Handbook of No/th American Indians, Vol. 
9, William G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 

Stokes, Marvin A. and Terah L. Smiley 

1963 Tree-Ring Dates From the Navajo Land Claim I. The Northern Sector. Tree-Ring Bulletin 
25(3-4):8-18. 

1967 Tree-Ring Dates From the Navajo Land Claim IV. The Eastern Sector. Tree-Ring Bulletin 
29(l-2):2-15. 

Tiller, Veronica E. 

1983 Jicarilla Apache. In "Southwest," edited by Alfonso Ortiz, Handbook of North American Indians, 
Vol. 10, William G. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 

Van Valkenburgh, Richard F. 

1974 A Short History of the Navajo People. In Navajo Indians III, American Indian Ethnohistoiy, 
Indians of the Southwest, pp. 201-267. Garland Publishing Company, New York. 



26 



References Cited 



Van Valkenburgh, Richard F., and John C. McPhee 

1938 A Short History of the Navajo People. USDI, Office of Indian Affairs, Navajo Service, Window 
Roclc, Arizona. 

Vivian, R. Gwinn 

1960 Navajo Archeology of Chacra Mesa, New Mexico. Master's thesis. University of New Mexico, 
Albuquerque. 

Vogt, Evon Z. 

1961 Navajo. In Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change, edited by Edward H. Spicer. 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

Wilson, John P. 

1985 Before the Pueblo Revolt: Population Trends, Apache relations and Pueblo Abandonments in 
Seventeenth Century New Mexico. In "Prehistory and History in the Southwest, Collected Papers in 
Honor of Alden C. Hayes," edited by Nancy Fox. Tlie Archaeological Society of New Mexico 11. 
Ancient City Press, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

Wilson, John P. and A. Helene 

1974 LA 2298: The Earliest Pueblito? Awanyu 2(l):8-26. 

Wozniak, Frank E. 

1985 Before the Exodus: The Navajo Indians in the San Juan Basin, ca. AD 1500 to AD 1770. 
Manuscript on file with the author. 

1986 Ethnohistory of the Abiquiu Reservoir Area. In Archaeological and Historical Research at 
Abiquiu Reseivoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 3(13). Chambers Group, Inc., Albuquerque. 



27 



THE PUEBLITO AS A SITE COMPLEX; 
ARCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

IN THE 
DINETAH DISTRICT 

The 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 



Michael P. Marshall 

with assistance from 
Paul S. Grigg 



Acknowledgements 



This publication represents the combined results of two episodes of cultural resources survey and reporting, 
and could not have been produced without the efforts of a number of individuals. Michael Marshall and 
Paul Grigg conducted both sessions of survey, with Grigg being responsible for the in-field analysis of lithic 
artifacts and much of the photography. Marshall undertook the in-field analysis of ceramic assemblages. 
Joseph Winter served as Principal Investigator for the 1989 survey and edited the draft final report for that 
session, which was typeset by Barbara Lane. Richard Chapman served as Principal Investigator for the 1990 
survey, edited the draft final report for the 1990 session, and then compiled both reports into this final 
publication. Christina Marshall and Ronald Stauber drafted the illustrations, while Peter Eschman and 
Colleen Johnson were responsible for all of the data entry and summaries of site data, including all of the lithic 
artifact tables. John Roney and LouAnn Jacobson reviewed the drafts of the report and are thanked for their 
input. Finally, we wish to express our special thanks to Donna Lasusky for her skill and grace under pressure 
while typing earlier drafts, transforming innumerable handwritten tables into clear formats which actually 
convey meaning, deciphering cryptic editorial annotations and typesetting this final document for submission 
to the BLM. 

MPM 
JCW 
RCC 

Albuquerque 
November 1990 



Abstract 



This report presents the results of archeological survey conducted at 9 eighteenth century Navajo puebHto 
sites in the Dinetah District of northwestern New Mexico. This Class III cultural resource inventory covered 
430 acres of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands in 20- to 80-acre tracts surrounding each pueblito. 
The survey was completed in March and April of 1989 and March of 1990 by the Office of Contract Archeology 
(OCA), University of New Mexico, under contract with the New Mexico BLM, Albuquerque District. The 
study areas included Split Rock Pueblito, Largo School Pueblito, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito, Tapacito 
Pueblito, Frances Canyon Pueblito, Shaft House, Simon Canyon Pueblito, Crow Canyon PuebHto, and 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. A total of 76 archeological sites, including the 9 pueblitos, and 49 isolated 
occurrences were located and are described in this report. Twenty-eight person days were devoted to survey 
and field documentation for a mean coverage rate of 15.4 acres per person per day. 

The condition of all cultural properties encountered in the survey is evaluated and recommendations for 
future cultural resource management of these important cultural properties are made. The pueblitos, with a 
few exceptions, are in good and stable condition because of previous stabilization efforts by the BLM and 
monitoring of the sites primarily by BLM volunteers. There are a number of general, as well as site specific, 
recommendations offered in this study that can assist in the continued preservation of these important cultural 
properties. 

Eight of the nine pueblitos are in large complexes consisting of a variety of site types including sweat lodges, 
hearths and ovens, forked stick hogans, storage areas, rock art panels, and other associated features. Previous 
work at the pueblitos failed to record or discuss the many associated sites. The 1989 and 1990 inventory, 
therefore, provides a new perspective on the pueblito occupation. 



Table of Contents 



Acknowledgments i 

Abstract ii 

List of Tables v 

List of Figures vii 

List of Plates ix 

Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 

Chapter 2 - Largo School Pueblito Complex 7 

Chapter 3 - Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 33 

Chapter 4 - Split Rock Pueblito Complex 53 

Chapter 5 - Tapacito Pueblito Complex 89 

Chapter 6 - Split House Pueblito Complex . 109 

Chapter 7 - Simon Canyon 131 

Chapter 8 - Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 141 

Chapter 9 - Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 183 

Chapter 10 - Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 211 

Chapter 11 -An Evaluation of the Pueblito Site Complex 237 

Chapter 12 - Evidence of Early Developmental Anasazi Occupations 259 

Chapter 13 - Recommendations for Management 261 

References 267 

Appendix A-Excavation of a Navajo Goberndor Phase Cache 

in the Frances Canyon Complex 273 

Appendix B-Catalogue of Artifacts Collected 281 



List of Tables 

Table 1. Largo School Pueblito Complex 10 

Table 2. Largo School Pueblito (LA 5657): Ceramic frequencies 17 

Table 3. Largo School (LA 5657), upper Pueblito, Provenience A: Lithic artifacts 18 

Table 4. Largo School (LA 5657), lower west Provenience B, Midden No. 1: Lithic artifacts ... 19 

Table 5. Largo School (LA 5657), lower Provenience B, Midden No. 2: Lithic artifacts 19 

Table 6. Largo School (LA 5657), lower west Provenience B, 

scatter east of Feature B-5: Lithic artifacts 20 

Table 7. Largo School (LA 7155): Lithic artifacts 23 

Tables. Largo School Pueblito (LA 71558): Ceramic frequencies 28 

Table 9. Largo School (LA 71558): Lithic artifacts 29 

Table 10. Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex (LA 5662) 36 

Table 11. Midden areas in the Hooded Fireplace Complex 42 

Table 12. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662): Ceramic ware-type and bone frequencies 44 

Table 13. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662), Provenience 1, Feature 1 midden: Lithic artifacts ... 45 



Lithic artifacts 46 

Lithic artifacts 47 

Lithic artifacts 48 

Lithic artifacts 49 



Table 14. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662), Provenience 3, Midden 3: 
Table 15. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662), Provenience 3, Midden 4: 
Table 16. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662), Provenience 2, Midden 2: 
Table 17. Hooded Fireplace (LA 5662), Provenience 3, Midden 7: 

Table 18. Hooded Fireplace Pueblito (LA 71560): Ceramic frequencies 49 

Table 19. Hooded Fireplace (LA 71560): Lithic artifacts 51 

Table 20. Split Rock Pueblito Complex 56 

Table 21. Split Rock Pueblito (LA 56664) middens 59 

Table 22. Split Rock Pueblito (LA 5664): Ceramic ware-type, bone, and burned 

adobe frequencies 60 

Table 23. Split Rock (LA 5664): Lithic artifacts 61 

Table 24. Split Rock (LA 71561): Lithic artifacts 64 

Table 25. Split Rock (LA 71567): Lithic artifacts 75 

Table 26. Split rock (LA 71568): Lithic artifacts 77 

Table 27. Split Rock (LA 71750): Lithic artifacts 81 

Table 28. Tapacito Pueblito Complex 93 

Table 29. Tapacito Pueblito (LA 2298) ceramic frequencies and miscellaneous material 97 

Table 30. Tapacito (LA 2298), Midden 1: Lithic artifacts 98 

Table 31. Tapacito (LA 2298), Midden 2: Lithic artifacts 99 

Table 32. Tapacito (LA 2298), Midden 3: Lithic artifacts 100 

Table 33. Tapacito (LA 71574): Lithic artifacts 105 

Table 34. Shaft House Pueblito Complex 112 

Table 35. Shaft House Pueblito (LA 5660): Ceramic ware-type and bone frequencies 121 

Table 36. Shaft House (LA 5660): Lithic artifacts 121 

Table 37. Shaft House (LA 71578): Lithic artifacts 126 

Table 38. Simon Canyon Pueblito Complex 132 

Table 39. Simon Canyon (LA 5047): Lithic artifacts 137 

Table 40. Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 144 

Table 41. Frances Canyon Pueblito middens 148 

Table 42. Frances Canyon (LA 2135): Ceramic ware-type and bone frequencies 149 

Table 43. Frances Canyon (LA 2135), Midden 3: Lithic artifacts 151 

Table 44. Frances Canyon (LA 2135), talus slope below pueblito: Lithic artifacts 152 



List of Tables (Continued) 

Table 45. Frances Canyon (LA 2135), miscellaneous locations: Lithic artifacts 153 

Table 46. Frances Canyon (LA 71584), south midden: Lithic artifacts 156 

Table 47. Frances Canyon (LA 71585): Lithic artifacts 158 

Table 48. Frances Canyon (LA 71587): Lithic artifacts 163 

Table 49. Frances Canyon (LA 71591): Lithic artifacts 169 

Table 50. Frances Canyon (LA 71592): Lithic artifacts 172 

Table 51. Frances Canyon (LA 71593), Feature 1: Lithic artifacts 174 

Table 52. Frances Canyon (LA 71593), Feature 2: Lithic artifacts 174 

Table 53. Frances Canyon (LA 71593), Feature 4: Lithic artifacts 175 

Table 54. Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 185 

Table 55. Crow Canyon Pueblito (LA 20219) ceramic frequencies 189 

Table 56. Crow Canyon Pueblito (LA 20219): Lithic artifacts 190 

Table 57. Crow Canyon (LA 77863): Lithic artifacts 193 

Table 58. Crow Canyon (LA 77871) ceramic frequencies 203 

Table 59. Crow Canyon (LA 77871): Lithic artifacts 204 

Table 60. Crow Canyon (LA 77872): Lithic artifacts 207 

Table 61. Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 212 

Table 62. Hadlock's Crow Canyon (LA 55830) ceramic frequencies 216 

Table 63. Hadlock's Crow Canyon PuebHto (LA 55830): Lithic artifacts 217 

Table 64. Hadlock's Crow Canyon (LA 77876): Lithic artifacts 225 

Table 65. Hadlock's Crow Canyon (LA 77877): Lithic artifacts 228 

Table 66. Hadlock's Crow Canyon (LA 77878) ceramic frequencies 230 

Table 67. Hadlock's Crow Canyon (LA 77878): Lithic artifacts 231 

Table 68. The Gobernador Phase Pueblito Complex feature and structure types (concluded) . . 238 

Table 69. Frequencies of Gobernador Phase structures and features at pueblito complexes . . . 240 
Table 70. Structural characteristics of the pueblitos and associated features recorded 

from the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 242 

Table 71. Characteristics of sweat lodge sites found in the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey ... 244 

Table 72. Ceramic ware-type frequencies stratified according to pueblito complexes 252 

Table 73. Largo School Complex ceramic frequencies 253 

Table 74. Hooded Fireplace Complex ceramic frequencies (ceramics recovered from 

pueblito area only) 253 

Table 75. Split Rock Complex ceramic frequencies 255 

Table 76. Frances Canyon Complex ceramic frequencies 255 

Table 77. Tapacito Site Complex ceramic frequencies 256 

Table 78. Shaft House Complex ceramic frequencies 256 

Table 79. Crow Canyon Complex ceramic frequencies 257 

Table 80. Hadlock's Crow Canyon ceramic frequencies 257 

Table 81. Anasazi sites located in the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 260 



List of Figures 



Figure 1. Location of Navajo Pueblito Complexes 2 

Figure 2. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Largo School survey area ... 8 

Figure 3. Schematic map of the Largo School Complex 9 

Figure 4. LA 5657: Largo School Pueblito, Provenience A 13 

Figure 5. LA 5657: Provenience B, Lower Largo School Complex 14 

Figure 6. Navajo-Gobernador Phase projectile points (actual size) 21 

Figure 7. LA 71555: Hearth, Largo School Complex 22 

Figures. LA 71556: Cliff base storage area. Largo School Complex 24 

Figure 9. LA 71557: Sweat lodge. Largo School Complex 26 

Figure 10. LA 71558: Rosa Phase ceramic and lithic scatter. Largo School Complex 27 

Figure 11. LA 71559: Hand-and-toe holds, Largo School Complex 30 

Figure 12. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences for the 

Hooded Fireplace Pueblito survey area 34 

Figure 13. Schematic map of the Hooded Fireplace Complex 35 

Figure 14. LA 5662: Provenience 1, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 38 

Figure 15. LA 5662: Provenience 2, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 40 

Figure 16. LA 5662: Provenience 3, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 41 

Figure 17. LA 71560: Rosa Phase hearth, Hooded Fireplace Complex 50 

Figure 18. Survey boundaries, sites, and isolated occurrences for the Split Rock 

and Tapacito Pueblito Survey Area 54 

Figure 19. Schematic map of the Split Rock Complex 55 

Figure 20. LA 5664: Split Rock Pueblito 57 

Figure 21. LA 71561: Anasazi hearth. Split Rock Complex 63 

Figure 22. LA 71562: Anasazi hearth. Split Rock Complex 65 

Figure 23. LA 71563: Rock shelter. Split Rock Complex 67 

Figure 24. LA 71563: Anasazi rock art panel 68 

Figure 25. LA 71564: Sweat lodge, Split Rock Complex 69 

Figure 26. LA 71565: Hearth, Split Rock Complex 71 

Figure 27. LA 71566: Sweat lodge. Split Rock Complex 72 

Figure 28. LA 71567: Midden, Split Rock Complex 74 

Figure 29. LA 71568: Hearth area. Split Rock Complex 76 

Figure 30. LA 71569: Hearth and possible forkstick structure, SpHt Rock Complex 78 

Figure 31. LA 71570: Sweat loedge, hearth, and midden. Split Rock Complex 80 

Figure 32. LA 71571: Sweat lodge. Split Rock Complex 82 

Figure 33. LA 71599: Cache, Split Rock Complex 84 

Figure 34. LA 71820: Rock art panel. Split Rock Complex 86 

Figure 35. Schematic map of the Tapacito Complex 90 

Figure 36. LA 2298: Tapacito Pueblito 92 

Figure 37. LA 2298: North-south cross-section, Tapacito Pueblito 94 

Figure 38. LA 71572: Hearth-oven, Tapacito Complex 101 

Figure 39. LA 71573: Sweat lodge, Tapacito Complex 102 

Figure 40. LA 71574: Rose Phase site,Tapacito Complex 104 

Figure 41. LA 71575: Sweat lodge,Tapacito Complex 106 

Figure 42. LA 71598: Sweat lodge,Tapacito Complex 108 

Figure 43. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Shaft House Complex 110 

Figure 44. Schematic map of the Shaft House Complex Ill 

Figure 45. LA 5660: Shaft House Puebhto 114 



vii 



Figure 46. 
Figure 47. 
Figure 48. 
Figure 49. 
Figure 50. 
Figure 51. 
Figure 52. 
Figure 53. 
Figure 54. 
Figure 55. 
Figure 56. 
Figure 57. 
Figure 58. 
Figure 59. 
Figure 60. 
Figure 61. 
Figure 62. 
Figure 63. 
Figure 64. 
Figure 65. 
Figure 66. 
Figure 67. 
Figure 68. 
Figure 69. 
Figure 70. 
Figure 71. 

Figure 72. 
Figure 73. 
Figure 74. 
Figure 75. 
Figure 76. 
Figure 77. 
Figure 78. 
Figure 79. 
Figure 80. 
Figure 81. 
Figure 82. 
Figure 83. 

Figure 84. 
Figure 85. 
Figure 86. 

Figure 87. 
Figure 88. 
Figure 89. 



List of Figures (Continued) 

LA 5660: Schematic cross-section of shaft/tower at Shaft House, view to west 

LA 5660: Western site area, Shaft House Pueblito 

LA 71576: 
LA 71577: 
LA 71578: 
LA 71579: 
LA 71580: 



. 116 

. 119 

: Corral and room, Shaft House Complex 122 

: Sweat lodge. Shaft House Complex 123 

: Multi-feature component, Shaft House Complex 125 

: Sweat lodge. Shaft House Complex 127 

: Hearth area. Shaft House Complex 128 

Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Simon Canyon survey area . . 131 

Schematic map of the Simon Canyon Complex 133 

LA 5047: Simon Canyon Pueblito 135 

LA 5047: Simon Canyon Pueblito, view to the north 136 

LA 71581: Storage area, Simon Canyon Complex 138 

LA 71582: Rockshelter, Simon Canyon Complex * 140 

Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Frances Canyon survey area . 142 

Schematic map of the Frances Canyon Complex 143 

LA 2135: Frances Canyon Pueblito 146 

Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex 154 

Rosa Phase site, Frances Canyon Complex 155 

Multi-component hearth and pot drop, Frances Canyon Complex .... 157 

Hearth and oven area, Frances Canyon Complex 160 

Rosa Phase site, Frances Canyon Complex 161 

Gobernador Phase sherd scatter, Frances Canyon Complex 164 

Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex 165 



LA 71583: 
LA 71584: 
LA 71585: 
LA 71586: 
LA 71587: 
LA 71588: 
LA 71589: 
LA 71590: 
LA 71591: 
LA 71592 



Historic camp, Frances Canyon Complex . . . . 

Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex ...... 

Multi-component site, Dinetah and Rosa phases. 



167 
168 



Frances Canyon Complex 



170 
173 
177 
178 



LA 71593: Encampment, Frances Canyon Complex 

LA 71594: Cache, Frances Canyon Complex 

LA 71595: Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex 

LA 71596: Forkstick hogan and midden, Frances Canyon Complex 179 

LA 71597: Rock art with Rosa Phase mud glyphs, Frances Canyon Complex 181 

Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Crow Canyon survey area . . 184 

Schematic map of the Crow Canyon Complex 186 

LA 20219: Crow Canyon Pueblito 188 

LA 77863: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan and midden. Crow Canyon Complex 192 

LA 77865: Multicomponent rock art and granary, Crow Canyon Complex 195 

LA 77866: Goberndor Phase sweat lodge. Crow Canyon Complex 196 

LA 77867: Goberndor Phase hearth and ceramic-lithic scatter. 

Crow Canyon Complex 198 

LA 77869: Cliff house granary. Crow Canyon Complex 200 

LA 77870: Cliff house granary. Crow Canyon Complex 201 

LA 77871: Goberndor Phase habitation, storage, and sweat lodge, 

Crow Canyon Complex 202 

LA 77872: Anasazi hearth and activity area, Crow Canyon Complex 205 

LA 77880: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan site, Crow Canyon Complex 208 

LA 77883: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan, Crow Canyon Complex 210 



viii 



List of Figures (Continued) 

Figure 90. Schematic map of the Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 213 

Figure 91. LA 55830: Hadlock's Crow Canyon PuebUto 215 

Figure 92. LA 77873: Historic corral, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 219 

Figure 93. LA 77875: Historic house, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 222 

Figure 94. LA 77876: Anasazi hearths, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 224 

Figure 95. LA 77877: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan site, 

Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 227 

Figure 96. LA 77878: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan site, 

Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 229 

Figure 97. LA 77879: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex . . 232 

Figure 98. LA 77881: Gobernador Phase boulder house, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex . . . 234 

Figure 99. LA 77882: Sweat lodge, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 235 

Figure 100. LA 71594: Cache, Frances Canyon Complex 275 

Figure 101. Dinetah Scored-Incised vessel fragment 277 

List of Plates 

Plate 1. Upper Largo School Pueblito, looking west 11 

Plate 2. Cut stick shafts collected from the vicinity of Largo School Pueblito 15 

Plate 3. Hooded Fireplace Pueblito, looking northeast 37 

Plate 4. Split Rock Pueblito, looking west 58 

Plate 5. LA 71599: Cottonwood weaving tools. Split Rock Complex 85 

Plate 6. Tapacito Pueblito, looking north 91 

Plate 7. Shaft House Pueblito 113 

Plate 8. Tower at Shaft House, looking west 115 

Plate 9. Simon Canyon Pueblito, undergoing stabilization maintenance 134 

Plate 10. Frances Canyon Pueblito, looking northeast 145 

Plate 11. Hooded fireplace, Frances Canyon Pueblito 147 

Plate 12a. Iron ax, front view, Frances Canyon Complex 182 

Plate 12b. Iron ax, side view, Frances Canyon Complex 182 

Plate 13. Crow Canyon Pueblito 187 

Plate 14. Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito 214 

Plate 15. Navajo horned supernatural with Rosa human figures 221 

Plate 16. Forkstick hogan enclosed by masonry walls (Old Fort Ruin) 243 

Plate 17a. Navajo supernatural 251 

Plate 17b. Navajo deity symbols: Born for Water (hourglass) & Monster Slayer (bow) 251 



Chapter I 

Introduction 



Archeological inventory was conducted at nine 
eighteenth century Navajo puebHto sites in the 
Dinetah District of northwestern New Mexico. This 
work on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) ad- 
ministered land required completion of a Class III 
cultural resource inventory covering 430 acres in 20- 
to 80-acre tracts around each of the pueblitos. The 
survey was completed in March and April of 1989 
and in March of 1990 by the Office of Contract 
Archeology (OCA), University of New Mexico, 
under contract with the New Mexico BLM, Albu- 
querque District. The study areas selected for the 
survey included Split Rock Pueblito, Largo School 
Pueblito, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito, Tapacito 
Pueblito, Frances Canyon Pueblito, Shaft House 
Pueblito, Simon Canyon Pueblito, Crow Canyon 
PuebHto, and Hadlock's Crow Canyon Puebhto. 
These areas are located in the Largo Canyon, Fran- 
ces Canyon, and Simon Canyon drainages of the 
upper eastern San Juan River (Figure 1). The spe- 
cific location and environment of each study area is 
discussed in the introduction to the cultural re- 
sources for each area. 

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain 
information concerning the pueblitos and associ- 
ated sites relevant to the continued management of 
these cultural resources. This information was 
needed to identify the cultural properties within 
proposed "special use areas" at the pueblitos and to 
prevent potential adverse impacts to the cultural 
properties that might result from continued and 
increased visitation and stabilization maintenance at 
the sites. Each of the pueblitos under consideration 
here was previously documented and was included 
in a thematic nomination to the National Register of 
Historic Places prepared in 1986. A variety of asso- 
ciated but previously undocumented features and 
sites were located and recorded and a total of 76 
archeological sites, including the 9 pueblitos, and 49 
isolated occurrences arc described in this report. 

The archeological survey was completed by 
Michael P. Marshall and Paul S. Grigg in two eight- 
day field sessions in 1989 and one eight-day session 



in 1990. Three days of survey assistance were also 
contributed by Joseph Winter and Richard Chap- 
man. A total of 28 person days was devoted to survey 
and field documentation for a mean of 15.4 acres 
covered per person per day. The high site densities 
and the rugged landscape of the study areas re- 
quired this labor intensive effort. The report was 
prepared by Marshall and Chapman. Marshall 
served as Project Director, while Winter and Chap- 
man served a Principal Investigators during the two 
phases of survey and report preparation. 

The archeological inventory completed at the 9 
pueblitos revealed that 8 are actually complexes of 
associated sites. The fact that each pueblito has 
been the subject of frequent documentation while 
not a single associated site was previously recorded 
clearly demonstrates the singular viewpoint of pre- 
vious pueblito studies. The principal contribution of 
the present study is the empirical demonstration that 
most pueblitos consist of a complex of associated 
sites. These complexes are concentrated in areas of 
100-500 meters on a side. The complexes consist of 
one and sometimes two pueblitos with other site 
types, including sweat lodges, hearths and ovens, 
outlying forkstick habitations, storage areas, rama- 
das and shades, corrals, rockshelters, defensive 
structures, occasional rock art panels, and caches. 
In addition to the Gobernador Phase pueblito com- 
plexes, other sites recorded during the survey in- 
clude 1 possible Dinetah Phase site, 12 Anasazi sites, 
and 3 twentieth-century historical sites. 

The condition of all cuhural properties encoun- 
tered in the survey was evaluated and recommenda- 
tions for future cultural resource management of 
these important cultural properties were made. 
Most of the pueblito properties are in good and 
stable condition. This is due largely to the previous 
stabilization efforts completed by the BLM and the 
monitoring of the sites by BLM volunteers. 

Implementing a number of the general recom- 
mendations offered in this study could result in the 
continued preservation and contribute to the inter- 
pretation of these cultural properties. Perhaps of 



Introduction 




COLORADO 
NEW MEXICO 



F ARMI NGTON 



a r f o 
c h o o I O^ 
Hooded ^--OjOSpl It Rock 
'Fireplace I Tapacito 
Canyon 




Prelect area 
in New Mexico 



N 



1 

I I 



20 



MILES 



Figure 1. Location of Navajo Pueblito Complexes. 



Chapter I 



foremost research concern is the acquisition of ad- 
ditional tree-ring samples, especially from the sites 
that have not been dated dendrochronologically. It 
is also recommended that various surface artifacts 
be collected and curated to prevent the possible loss 
of these materials through unauthorized collection. 
The collection and identification of faunal materials 
is especially recommended. It is also recommended 
that the pueblito sites be inspected with a metal 
detector to determine the presence and location of 
metal artifacts. This could be done as part of a 
testing project or as an information control base to 
evaluate the potential impact to these sites by detec- 
tor looting. 

It is recommended that an inventory and analysis 
be completed for all artifacts that have been col- 
lected from the pueblitos and are now in storage in 
various institutions in New Mexico, Arizona, and 
Colorado. It is also recommended that the sites that 
comprise the pueblito complexes be incorporated in 
the National Register listing with the submission of 
an addendum with revisions to the nomination 
boundaries. There are, in addition, various site spe- 
cific recommendations outlined in this text. 

The recognition that Gobernador Phase 
puebHtos consist of a complex of associated sites is 
a significant contribution of this study and has con- 
siderable significance with respect to research and 
management considerations. A preliminary at- 
tempt to complete an analysis of the pueblito com- 
plex in terms of Gobernador Phase Navajo culture 
history and lifeways is presented in Chapter 11 of this 
report. As our vision of ancestral Navajo culture in 
the Dinetah District expands so does our apprecia- 
tion for the diversity of the archeological record. 
The pueblito complexes of the Dinetah represent a 
most unique and significant chapter in the early 
history of North America and justify our efforts 
toward continued preservation and interpretation. 

Records Search 

A review of all available archeological records for 
the nine pueblito study areas was completed. This 
revealed many references for the pueblito sites and 
for the Crow Canyon Petroglyph site, but failed to 
reveal information about other sites within the study 
areas. The fact that each pueblito has been repeat- 
edly documented while not a single associated site 



was previously recorded clearly demonstrates the 
singular viewpoint of earlier research. 

Archeological records on file in the New Mexico 
Archeological Records Management System 
(ARMS) files were consulted and data printouts for 
sites in proximity to the study areas were obtained. 
All published materials and various unpublished 
records for the nine pueblitos was also consulted. 
Most of the reference material is contained in un- 
published archeological site records and BLM sta- 
bilization workbooks. 

Only one pueblito, in the Frances Canyon Com- 
plex, has been excavated. This work was conducted 
in 1915 by Earl Morris and was reported on by Roy 
Carlson in 1965. Artifacts collected from Frances 
and other pueblitos are now located in various insti- 
tutions, including the Museum of New Mexico, the 
Navajo Tribal Museum, the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement, the University of Colorado Museum, and 
the San Juan County Museum. The scope of this 
project did not include the inspection and definition 
of these artifacts. This work is being done by the 
Anasazi Heritage Center in a project organized by 
the BLM Farmington Resource Area. 

Various expeditions into the Dinetah District 
were undertaken in efforts to obtain datable tree- 
ring materials from the pueblitos (e.g.. Hall 1944, 
Hall and Stallings in 1951, and the Navajo Land 
Claims Studies from 1953 to 1959). As a result of 
work recently completed by Ron Towner, University 
of Arizona, all the pueblitos in this study, with the 
exception of Shaft Ruin and the Crow Canyon pet- 
roglyphs, have tree-ring dates. 

All the pueblitos under consideration here were 
nominated to and listed on the National Register of 
Historic Places in a thematic nomination of 48 prop- 
erties prepared by the Division of Conservation Ar- 
chaeology. The survey documentation upon which 
the nominations was based is presented in an over- 
view of the properties prepared by Powers and John- 
son (1987). The nominations include the pueblitos 
and directly associated features, but most of the 
associated sites and features located in the recent 
1989-1990 BLM survey were not included in the 1987 
nomination. 

The Powers and Johnson (1987) overview pro- 
vides a comprehensive summary of all previous ar- 
cheological records for each of the nine pueblitos in 
this study. Other important primary sources are the 
excellent study of Frances Canyon Ruin provided in 



Introduction 



Carlson's (1965) interpretation of Morris' 1915 ex- 
cavation and the study of Tapacito Ruin by J. Wilson 
and A. H. Warren in 1974. Archeological site data 
forms for each of the nine locations were also com- 
pleted in a 1958-1959 survey by H. Hadlock of the 
San Juan Archaeological Society. Additional infor- 
mation for each of the site locations is provided in 
the 1973-1975 stabilization workbooks compiled by 
the BLM for seven of the sites and by the National 
Park Service for Shaft House. Maps of each 
pueblito were also completed by BLM archeologist 
T. Lutonsky during the stabilization projects. 

Additional archeological notes consulted in this 
study include the Museum of New Mexico site data 
records for Shaft House (made by S. Peckham in 
1972) and Tapacito (prepared by J.Wilson in 1972), 
a description of Shaft House by Haskell (1975), 
information on Frances Canyon by Keur (1941), a 
note on the Largo School Pueblito by Van Valken- 
burg (1941) and a survey of the Crow Canyon Arche- 
ological District by Hadlock (1971). Tree-ring dates 
from the sites are summarized in the inventory pre- 
pared by Robinson, Harrill, and Warren (1974). 
There are, in addition, field notes for the Split Rock, 
Frances Canyon, Largo School, and Tapacito 
pueblitos collected by the 1953-1959 Navajo Lands 
Claims Project. 

Survey Methods 

A total of 430 acres surrounding the nine pueblito 
locations was inventoried by a systematic Class III 
cultural resource survey. Each of the nine pueblito 
complexes was intensively surveyed and all cultural 
resources encountered were comprehensively doc- 
umented within the 20- to 80-acre tracts. In most 
cases, the survey areas included a variety of land- 
forms. A systematic examination of all landforms 
within the survey tracts was completed by pedestrian 
transects that varied from 10 to 20 m in width, de- 
pending on topography. All cultural resources were 
documented according to standards described in the 
BLM Manual Supplement H-8100-1, Appendix I. 

A total of 76 site locations and 49 isolated occur- 
rences were found in the survey areas. Other than 
the 9 pueblitos and the Crow Canyon petroglyphs, 
no other sites were previously recorded. The loca- 
tion of each site was plotted on a U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) topographic map and notes con- 
cerning the location of each were compiled. No 



aerial photographic imagery of appropriate scale 
was available for use during the survey. 

The transects were often marked with tissue 
paper to identify surveyed areas. Specific landforms 
such as mesa tops, cliff bases, benches, etc. provided 
control for unit areas of survey. The stepped-ledge 
character of most of the canyon walls required in- 
spection by transects parallel to landforms, such as 
cliff edges, cliff bases, boulder-strewn talus slopes, 
and narrow ledge or bench surfaces. Most of the 
survey areas are in rugged canyonlands with sheer 
cliffs and steep boulder-strewn talus slopes, mazes 
of broken stone, and narrow ledges. The systematic 
archeological survey of such landforms requires 
considerable effort and survey in these areas was 
determined by available access. Many high, narrow 
ledges and extremely steep canyon slopes, as well as 
cracks, crevices, and caves, were inspected, but 
areas requiring technical equipment for access were 
avoided. An average of 15.4 acres per person day 
was completed during the survey. 

The survey areas, because of their proximity to the 
pueblitos, have a rather high site density. All struc- 
tures, the site boundaries, and immediate physio- 
graphic features were mapped. Most 
measurements were paced, although the dimensions 
of some structural features were measured with a 
meter tape. Each site was marked in the field with 
a rebar site stake and field number. These site 
markers are designated on the site maps. The field 
numbers designate the 1989 project (OCA-408) and 
the 1990 project (OCA-428). The isolated occur- 
rences were not marked. 

All structural features and evidence of cultural 
sediment present in the site area were described. 
Each site was photographed. The condition of each 
site and all evidence of adverse impacts were de- 
scribed, and recommendations for the cultural 
resource management of specific sites were made. 

Grab samples of both ceramic and lithic materi- 
als, when present, were recorded and were stratified 
according to provenience area. No artifacts were 
collected with the exception of four isolated finds: 
an iron ax, part of a dried squash, a cache of weaving 
tools, and a cache of three fragmentary utility ves- 
sels. These artifacts were collected at the request of 
the BLM Area Archeologist to prevent unautho- 
rized removal of the items. All collected items were 
submitted to the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology 
for curation. 



Chapter I 



Research Orientation 



The primary objective of this project was to con- 
duct a systematic Class III cultural resource inven- 
tory of 430 acres of land surrounding and including 
nine Gobernador Phase pueblitos in northwestern 
New Mexico. Emphasis was given to the com- 
prehensive documentation of the cultural properties 
within the study areas and an evaluation of the 
pueblitos as part of a complex of associated sites. 
All archeological literature that specifically con- 
cerned the nine areas under consideration was re- 



viewed and evaluated. Historic references that ap- 
plied to specific findings in this study were also 
consulted. 

The empirical definition of the archeological sites 
encountered in the study areas, the evaluation of 
these sites as possible associated elements of the 
pueblito complex, and a definition of Gobernador 
Phase sites and structure types are the contributions 
of this report. An extensive overview of Gobernador 
Phase culture history and review of the archeological 
and historical literature regarding the Dinetah re- 
gion were beyond the scope of this project. 



Chapter 2 

Largo School Pueblito Complex 



The Largo School study area is a 20-acre tract 
located on the high southern wall of Canon Largo, 
directly south of the Largo Canyon School and op- 
posite the confluence of Ice Canyon. It is approxi- 
mately 22.9 miles south of the San Juan River 
(Figures 2 and 3). The survey included a high mesa 
top, a minor side canyon, a narrow bench, and steep 
talus slopes. The upper pueblito is located on a high 
peninsular point of the lower canyon rim. The lower 
pueblito complex is situated on a west-facing bench 
above the west tributary canyon. Other components 
of the site complex are located on the mesa top, at 
the base of the cliff, and on a small bench of the lower 
talus. Elevations in the study area range from 6420 
ft on the mesa top to 6150 ft on the canyon floor in 
the extreme northwest section of the study area. 
Most of the study area is within an open pinon-juni- 
per forest, although occasional sage-grassland areas 
appear on the mesa top and benchlands. A group of 
slickrock tinajas was found in the western tributary 
canyon directly below the lower pueblito complex, 
and contained ample water supplies in March of 
1989. Table 1 lists the sites in the complex. 

Largo School Pueblito 

LA 5657/6351 

Field Number: OCA 408-5. 

Site Name: Largo School PuebHto. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo-Pueblo 
Refugee, Gobernador Phase. 

Tree-Ring Dates: 1721 + , 1736j, 1736, 1737g. 

Previous Designations: 

LA 5657 San Juan Archaeological Society 
(SJAS) survey. 



AR-30-01- 20000 (BLM 1974). 

Largo #1A and #1B/RA 8 (SJAS, Harry L. 
Hadlock 1958). 

LA 6351 (Museum of New Mexico, John P. 
Wilson 1972). 

E-CL-UL-P (Navajo Land Claim, J. Lee Correll 
and Ronald Kurtz 1957 and 1959). 

Previous References: 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map. Site 
AR-30-01-2000 (1975). 

Correll and Kurtz (1957 & 1959). Navajo Land 
Claims Site No. E-CL-UL-P. Field Book 10, p. 

127. 

Hadlock (1958). SJAS Site Largo I A and IB; 
RA-8. 

Powers and Johnson (1987:41-42). 

Van Valkenburg (1937). Navajo Land Claims 
Site No. E-CL-UL-P. Field Book 11, p.61. 

Van Valkenburg (1947). 

Wilson (1972). Museum of New Mexico Site 
Data Form LA 6351. 

Wilson and Warren (1974). 



Location-Situation: The Largo School Pueblito 
Complex is located on the upper south wall of Caiion 
Largo opposite the confluence of Ice Canyon. The 
pueblito structure is situated on a high peninsular 
mesa point overlooking the entrance of a wooded 
boulder-strewn side canyon (Plate 1) and with an 
extended view down Cafion Largo and into Ice Can- 
yon. The upper pueblito is visible from the canyon 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 




LARGO SCHOOL 



Survey boundary 

Site 

Isolated occurrence 



I I 



d ± 



FEET 



] METERS I M 



Figure 2. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Largo School survey area. 



Chapter 2 



U a r 9 o 




Mesa top 



^ f\ ProvB \ LA5657/<A0 ProvA 
^ ^ PueblitoK 




Largo School Complex 

Slielch map: 300m E-W x 200m N-S 





^ 


Hand and toe holds 




• 


Sweat Lodge 




© 


Hogan 




■ 


Boulder top room 




o 


Rock shelter 


N 


* 


Hearth 


r 


c 


Corral 




=■ 


Wall 




C.'i 


Enclosure 




□ 


Wood rack 




o 


Midden 




© 


Scatter 




"=© 


Tinaja 




. 


Drainage 



Figure 3. Schematic map of the Largo School Complex. 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



Table 1. Largo School Pueblito Complex 



Size: ca 150 x100 m 

The Upper Pueblito Complex, Provenience A (LA 5657/6351) 

• Two room pueblito structure on mesa points (Feature A-1). 

• Ledge-backed masonry-based room (Feature A-2). 

• North ledge and talus midden formation (Feature A-4). 

• Wood rack (Feature A-3). 

• Rockshelter (Feature A-5). 

The Lower Pueblito Complex, Provenience B 

• One boulder top room enclosure (Feature B-1). 

• One masonry-based hogan (Feature B-4). 

• Two enclosures/possible corral areas (Features B-3 and B-5). 

• Two midden areas. 

• Two alignments (Features B-2 and B-6). 

• Boulder rockshelter (Feature B-8). 

Sites located in the outlying complex 

Size: 350 x 200 m area known 

• Walled storage cavity (LA 71556). 

• Hearth-oven area (LA 71555). 

• Sweat lodge (LA 71557). 

• Hand-and-toe holds access route (LA 71559). 

Anasazi sites 

• Rosa Phase ceramic-lithic scatter and possible garden area (LA 71558). 

Additional features 

• Numerous slickrock tinajas are present in the adjacent canyon floor. 



bottom. Formidable cliffs prevent access from 
below on the north and west, but the pueblito may 
be approached across the level mesa top from the 
south and east. Midden and scattered construc- 
tional debris are visible on elevated ledges at the cliff 
base and upper talus slope below the pueblito. 

Provenience B in the lower complex is located on 
a western bench about 30 m below and 150 m west 
of the upper pueblito. The upper pueblito cannot 
be seen from the lower complex and access from the 
lower to upper areas is up the broken slopes of the 
nearby canyon rincon. The lower complex, which 
includes one boulder top unit and a series of other 
structures, is situated on a boulder-strewn bench 
above the side canyon floor. A cliff ledge surrounds 
the bench and it is backed by steep talus to the upper 



cliff. The location, with the exception of the boulder 
top unit, is not fortified. Many of the structures on 
the lower bench are constructed against and incor- 
porate boulders. Visibility from the lower bench 
down Caiion Largo is extensive. 

Slickrock tinajas which appear in the forested 
floor of an adjacent side canyon provide, in season, 
a nearby water source. 

Description: The Largo School Site consists of a 
prominent two-room pueblito on a high mesa point 
surrounded by an extensive complex of additional 
structures. The complex is concentrated in upper 
and lower proveniences which extend over an area 
approximately 250 m east-west by 100 m north- 
south. The upper Provenience A of the complex 



10 



Chapter 2 




11 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



consists of the pueblito structure, a cliff side midden 
area, a ledge-based room, a rockshelter, and a pos- 
sible wooden rack. The lower Provenience B con- 
sists of a boulder top masonry unit, two midden 
areas, a masonry-based hogan, two rock wall align- 
ments, a possible corral, and a small rock shelter. A 
light scatter of artifacts also appears in proximity to 
both proveniences. Additional components such as 
the sweat lodge, located 75 m to the north, and a 
hearth, located 100 m to the southeast, should be 
considered as components of the Largo School 
Pueblito Complex. 

Provenience A, the Upper Pueblito Complex 
(Figure 4): The upper pueblito (Provenience A, 
Feature 1) is a prominent two-room masonry struc- 
ture erected on the cliff edge of a bare rock penin- 
sular point. A portion of the west room roof remains 
intact (wall height = 2.10 m) while the east room is 
reduced to a low rubble mound. Both round and 
square-hewn vigas of juniper and pirion were used 
in the construction and the roof was covered with 
juniper slat "tablas." Considerable quantities of ma- 
sonry rubble and occasional roof beams lie scattered 
about the pueblito and on the cliff ledge and cliff 
base below the structure. The west room is built 
against a low rock ledge and a steep cliff extends 
directly below the pueblito on the north and west 
sides. To the south and east, there is a low ledge and 
the open mesa top. The position of the pueblito 
alone is considered to be fortified. 

The west and east rooms of the pueblito are linked 
by an entryway 40 cm wide and 60 cm high. The west 
room is 3.0 x 3.2 m in size and the east room is 4.5 x 
2.75 m in size. The southeast corner of the west 
room is burned but there is no evidence of a hooded 
fireplace. The pueblito is simple irregularly faced 
masonry construction. The walls are a single stone 
wide and range from 30 to 35 cm thick. 

A semicircular unit (Feature A-2), 3 x 5 m, is 
constructed against a boulder ledge 5 m east of the 
pueblito. This appears to have been a masonry- 
ba.sed log construction. The walls are stacked sand- 
stone block construction. Three to four courses 
stand to an elevation of 30 cm but the presence of 
some rubble suggests an original elevation of 50-70 
cm. The upper wall and roof may have been of 
cribbed construction. Some juniper slats from the 
roof lie scattered in the unit. A projectile point and 
a turquoise bit were found in the structure. 



A concentration of juniper slats (Feature A-3) is 
present on the level mesa top 7 m south of the 
pueblito. This appears at first glance to be a section 
of intact roofing but, given the location, this cannot 
be the case. The slats appear in a parallel pattern 
3.0 X 1.5 m in size and apparently represent some 
type of collapsed rack structure. 

Scattered on the upper cliff ledges and at the cliff 
base below and north of the pueblito is a concentra- 
tion of masonry rubble and scattered roofing beams 
and juniper slats. Some of the beams exhibit saw-cut 
ends from previous tree-ring samplings. Scattered 
artifacts also appear in the Feature A-4 area, and it 
is probable that midden sediments are concealed 
below the rubble. 

A small rockshelter (Feature A-5) is on a ledge 
face approximately 60 m southeast of the pueblito. 
This is a small cave 3 m wide at the entrance, 4 m 
deep, and 1 m high. The cavity is filled with dry 
sandy earth with an estimated depth of 50 cm. It is 
probable that cultural sediments exist in this dry 
rockshelter. The roof of the shelter is smoke black- 
ened. Two cut-stick shafts with pointed ends (Plate 
2), 15 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, were found in 
the sheher. Some modern graffiti is present on the 
cave walls, and a modern hearth is also present at 
the cave entrance. 

A light scatter of artifacts was found on the upper 
mesa point in proximity to the pueblito, but no mid- 
den, other than the apparent cliff-base formation, is 
evident. The hearth (LA 71555) located 100 m 
southeast of the pueblito should also be recognized 
as part of the upper site complex. 

Provenience B, the Lower Complex (Figure 5): A 

complex of structures surrounding a boulder top 
"pueblito unit" on a lower bench 150 m west of the 
upper pueblito have been designated as Provenience 
B. These structures are on the flat western bench in 
an area approximately 75 m north-south by 30 m 
east-west. A variety of masonry constructions and 
three midden areas are present. The sweat lodge 
(LA 71557), located 75 m to the northeast is also 
considered a component of the lower Provenience 
B complex. 

The most conspicuous feature (Feature B-1) in 
the lower bench complex is a boulder top masonry 
unit previously designated as Largo Site 1-B (Powers 
and .Johnson 1987:41). This pueblito-like remnant is 
built on the sloped summit of a large 4 m high 



12 



Chapter 2 




'. ,' . \' ' ' - 408-5 V 



408- 
BLM signS^ ^^ 



.Bench Mark 



Beams 

Burned area' 



O. 



X 



(^' 



Figure 4. LA 5657: Largo School Pueblito, Provenience A. 



13 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 




J 
J 



^^.A 



o 



.^•;' 



J 

V 



J 



^ 



:n 



) 






14 




Chapter 2 



boulder. Access to this fortified structure is up a 
single crack on the east face of the rock. The struc- 
ture on the summit is a single large enclosure 6x4 
m in size. Wall alignments stand to 25 cm. Little 
masonry rubble is present at the rock base suggest- 
ing that the original walls were low. No wood mate- 
rial is present in the rubble and it is possible that the 
structure was only an unroofed enclosure. 

Near the north margin of the lower bench there is 
a circular masonry-based hogan ring (Feature B-4). 
This structure is 3 m in diameter and has wall align- 
ments and associated rubble suggesting an original 
wall elevation of about 50 cm. The upper wall and 
roof may have been a cribbed log construction, but 
no wood is present at this time. A hearth (Feature 
B-7) is located 7 m north of the hogan. It is defined 
by a small 50 cm diameter concentration of burned 
sandstone. A midden formation (Midden 1) is lo- 
cated 10 m west of the hogan ring. This midden is 5 
X 5 m in size and is apparently associated with the 
hogan ring. The midden is defined by an area of 
charcoal-laden soil and a concentration of artifacts. 
Also present is fire-cracked rock, including sand- 
stone spalls and a few quartzite cobbles. 

An alignment of sandstone blocks (Feature B-3) 
located 12 m south of the hogan ring forms an enclo- 
sure 8 X 4 m in size. Sandstone blocks 20 cm to 75 
cm in size, are placed among a group of boulders and 
form a kind of terraced enclosure. Masonry rubble 
adjacent to the north wall suggests that the original 
wall elevation was about 50-75 cm. This unroofed 
enclosure was perhaps a corral. Estimated depth of 
fill in the enclosure is 50 cm. Another poorly defined 
alignment (Feature B-2) exists on the slope 5 m 
below and parallel to the north wall of the Feature 3 
enclosure. This is also a terrace-like construction, 5 
m long, defined by scattered sandstone blocks 10-40 
cm in size. 

The most extensive midden area in the Largo 
School Complex (Midden 2) exists on the slope 5 m 
below and west of the Feature 3 enclosure. Artifacts 
and occasional burned sandstone spalls are scat- 
tered over an area 10 x 10 m in size, and charcoal- 
stained cultural sediments (10-20 cm in depth) 
appear in a 5 x 3 m area. Charcoal sediments and 
burned bone fragments are concentrated in one 2 m 
diameter area . The position of this midden adjacent 
to the Feature 3 enclosure is curious, as middens 
normally appear in proximity to habitation areas. 

A small rockshelter (Feature B-8) appears under 



Plate 2. Cut stick shafts collected from the 
vicinity of Largo School Pueblito. 



15 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



a boulder adjacent to Midden 2. The shelter is an 
apparent storage area 2 x 1 m in size and 50 cm in 
elevation. Fill in the unit is estimated to be 25 cm in 
depth. A scatter of sandstone blocks (10-30 cm in 
maximum dimension) at the shelter entrance indi- 
cates that it was once closed. An unburned 12-row 
corn cob was found in the shelter. 

Directly southeast and below the boulder top unit 
is another masonry enclosure (Feature B-5) measur- 
ing 5 x 6 m. The enclosure is an alignment of stacked 
rock elements (20-70 cm in maximum dimension) 
that incorporates a group of large boulders. Little 
rubble is present and it is estimated that the original 
wall elevation was 50 cm. The structure was appar- 
ently unroofed and may have been a masonry-based 
ramada or a corral pen enclosure. The structure 
retains soils to an estimated depth of 50 cm to 1 m. 
Another possible wall alignment (Feature B-6), 3 m 
in length, is built pendant to a large boulder north- 
east of the Feature B-5 enclosure. A scatter of 
artifacts, mostly chipped stone, also appears below 
and in proximity to the Feature B-5 enclosure. The 
scatter extends over an area 10 x 5 m in size. 

Remarks: Archeological survey of a 20-acre tract 
surrounding the Largo School Pueblito indicates 
that it consists of a rather extensive complex of 
related structures, middens, and activity areas. The 
upper pueblito (Provenience A, Feature 1) and the 
lower boulder top unit (Provenience B, Feature 1) 
are the most conspicuous and were previously doc- 
umented (Powers and Johnson 1987:41). There are, 
however, numerous additional features in the site 
complex. In the upper Provenience A area there is, 
in addition to the pueblito, a ledge-based room (A- 
2), a rockshelter (A-5), a collapsed wood rack (A- 
3), and some apparent cliff ledge and cliff base 
midden sediments. The lower Provenience B area, 
in addition to the boulder top unit (B-1) includes a 
masonry hogan ring (B-4), two masonry enclosure 
areas (B-3 and B-6), a small rockshelter storage area 
(B-8), and a hearth (B-7). Also related, but outside 
the complex, are a multiple hearth activity area (LA 
71555) and a sweat lodge (LA 71557). It is believed 
that the survey area includes the basic pueblito site 
complex, although additional outlying features may 
exist. 

In the floor of the side canyon directly below the 
Largo School Complex are a series of slickrock 
tinajas that at the time of our survey contained water. 



This nearby water source may have conditioned in 
part the selection of this site location by the Largo 
School occupants. 

The boulder top unit of the lower bench and the 
elevated mesa point location of the upper pueblito 
suggest a fortified position, although most of the site 
complex is on the open bench and mesa top. Fur- 
thermore, the upper pueblito may be approached 
without obstacle from the mesa top. The upper 
pueblito is located in a position that is conspicuous 
from the canyon floor, and there was no attempt to 
conceal the site complex. These factors suggest that 
the Largo School Complex was only subfortified. 
Perhaps the upper pueblito and the apparently un- 
roofed boulder top enclosure were used as locations 
for retreat during times of conflict while daily life 
took place in the open areas nearby. It is also signif- 
icant that none of the structures in the Largo School 
Complex were burned, suggesting that the settle- 
ment was not subject to sieged reduction. 

Condition and Recommendations: In general, the 
Largo School Pueblito Complex is in good and stable 
condition. There is no evidence of looting in the 
complex, although the Upper Pueblito Unit (Fea- 
ture A- 1), which was stabilized and filled in 1975, 
was no doubt partially looted. The area has also 
been subject to repeated collection. The east room 
of the upper pueblito has collapsed to a rubble 
mound and wall rubble and roofing material is scat- 
tered on the slopes below. The Boulder Top 
Pueblito Unit (B-1) has also largely collapsed due to 
the steep surface of the boulder top. Most of the 
other structures in the upper and lower provenience 
areas are in a reduced, but now stable condition and 
should not suffer from continued or increased visi- 
tation. Continued maintenance should focus on the 
standing east room in the upper pueblito. Addi- 
tional surface collections could be made to prevent 
the continued removal of artifact materials and it 
would be useful to consolidate the various surface 
collections previously taken from the site complex. 
Additional tree-ring samples should also be ob- 
tained from the site complex. 

Artifacts: The Largo School Complex has been sub- 
ject to repeated surface collection and the samples 
documented in this survey must be considered only 
vestigial of the original assemblage. Most of the 
surface artifacts that remain in the complex were 



16 



Chapter 2 



documented in this survey. The majority of these 
materials were found in Middens 1 and 2 and Scatter 
Area 3 of the lower Provenience B complex and 
below and north of the upper pueblito. A total of 42 
sherds and 54 lithic artifacts were recorded in the 
Provenience A and B areas. Subsistence remains 
including 14 burned bones, some ungulate tooth 
fragments, and 1 corn cob were also observed. Also, 
two cut-wood shafts were found in the rockshelter 
(Feature A-5). 

A total of 46 sherds from three sample areas 
(Table 2) were typed. Only a few additional scat- 
tered sherds were observed in the complex. The 
only ceramic types found in the complex are Dinctah 
Gray Plain (38 sherds undifferentiated as to surface 
treatment) and Gobernador Polychrome (8 sherds). 
All of the Dinetah material is thin (4-5 mm thick- 
ness) and a few rim sherds found were without fillets. 
Other ceramic types noted by Correll and Kurtz 
(1957, 1959) include Jemez Black-on-white (1), Zia 
(2), Santa Ana (1), and Acoma (2) materials. 

Tables 3 through 6 list the lithic artifacts. Fifty- 
four artifacts (plus 3 split quartzite cobbles) were 
observed and recorded. Washington Pass chert, 
chalcedony, petrified wood, and quartzite flakes 
predominated; other artifacts included two projec- 
tile points, a mano fragment, two manos, and a 
chopper. Drawings of all projectile points found 
during the project are in Figure 6. 



Table 2. Largo School Pueblito (LA 5657) 
ceramic frequencies 



LA 71555 



Location 



Dinetah 
Gray 



Gobernador 
Polychrome 



Provenience B 

Midden No. 1 
Midden No. 2 



North clitTbase below Upper Pueblito 

Feature A-1 17 



Tote 



38 



Field Number: OCA 408-1. 

Site Type: Hearth, processing area. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th Century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top south of Caiion Largo approximately 100 m 
southeast from the Largo School Pueblito. The site 
appears south of and adjacent to a low (1 m high) 
sandstone ledge and is approximately 100 m south 
of the Caiion Largo cliff edge. Slickrock exposures 
are nearby. The site is situated in a south-facing 
rincon in a level sandy area. 

Description (Figure 7): This site consists of scat- 
tered hearth debris, ceramics, and lithic artifacts in 
an area 20 m north-south by 10 m east-west. The 
presence of numerous burned sandstone spalls (5-10 
cm in size) indicate that the primary site function was 
hearth-related. Dark charcoal laden midden sedi- 
ments in the site area extend to a depth of 25 cm. 
This site appears to be a hearth processing area 
associated with the nearby Largo School Pueblito. 

Condition and Recommendations: The hearths in 
the site appear to be scattered but the site is in stable 
condition. This site should be recognized as a spe- 
cial function activity area associated with the Largo 
School Pueblito Complex. Since the site is located 
100 m from the pueblito proper it should not be 
impacted by continued visitation or stabilization. 

Artifacts: A sample of 24 sherds was recorded. 
Ceramic types include Dinetah Plain (20), Gober- 
nador Polychrome (3), and Gobernador Indented 
(1). Most of the Dinctah Plain material is thin (4-5 
mm) with a gray paste and quartz temper. Three 
sherds are thicker (6-7 mm) and a few exhibit exte- 
rior strialions. 

Ten lithics were also observed (Table 7). All were 
flakes, and were either chalcedony, quartzite, or 
chert. 



17 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



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Largo School Pueblito Complex 



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20 



Chapter 2 




A) Hooded Fireplace. LA 5662, Midden 7 
B-C) Largo School. LA 5657. B = Prov 3. C 
D) Splltrock Complex site LA 71567 
E-F) Tapacito. LA 2298, Midden 1 
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Prov 2 



Figure 6. Navajo-Gobernador Phase projectile points (actual size). 



21 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 




Figure 7. LA 71555: Hearth, Largo School Complex. 



22 



Chapter 2 



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LA 71556 



Field Number: OCA 408-2. 



Site Type: Rockshelter, walled storage cavity. 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Navajo. 



Unknown, possible 



Location-Situation: The cavity is located at the base 
of the upper south cliff of Cafion Largo approxi- 
mately 125 m to the east of the Largo School 
Pueblito. It is 1 m above the cliff base, opening to 
the north and facing the Ice Canyon confluence area. 
The shelter is concealed in the piiion- juniper forest 
at the cliff base. 

Description (Figure 8): This site consists of a small 
rockshelter that is partially closed by a low, stacked 
rock wall 2.5 m long and 30 cm high. This walled 
cavity is an apparent cliff storage unit of probable 
Navajo construction. The cavity is 3 m long and 1 m 
in height and depth. Dry laid sandstone blocks, 5-30 
cm in maximum dimension, were used in the con- 
struction. The cavity floor is mostly bedrock al- 
though some shallow fill about 10 cm in depth is 
present in part of the shelter. This fill does not 
appear to contain cultural sediments. No artifacts 
were observed in the site area. 

Remarks: This site is a cliff cavity storage unit pos- 
sibly associated with the Largo School Complex. 

Condition and Recommendations: The site re- 
mains in a stable and undisturbed condition. It is in 
a secluded location and should not suffer from ad- 
verse impact due to increased visitation at the Largo 
School Pueblito. No management actions are 
recommended. 



23 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 





24 



Chapter 2 



LA 71557 



Field Number: OCA 408-3. 
Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th Century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the south 
slope of Caiion Largo 75 m to the north of the Largo 
School Pueblito. It appears on a small ridge on a 
bench above the canyon floor and is in full view of 
the pueblito. The site is located in a rather exposed 
position on the narrow ridge. Visibility down Cafion 
Largo is extensive. 

Description (Figure 9): This is a sweat lodge site 
associated with the Largo School Complex. The site 
consists of two burned rock discard piles, the slat 
remnants of a sweat lodge, and a Dinetah Gray 
vessel cluster, all of which appear in an area 18 m 
east-west by 12 m north-south. 

There are two concentrations of burned sand- 
stone rock that appear to be the sweat lodge hearth 
and discard piles. The east concentration is a cres- 
centic pile, 8 x 2 m in size with a mound elevation of 
25-50 cm. The west concentration is 2 m in diameter 
and 25 cm in elevation. Fire-reddened sandstone 
blocks, 5-25 cm in size, are present. 

Between the discard piles on the ridge top is a 2 
m area of dark charcoal-stained soil adjacent to 
which are a few juniper slats. This area appears to 
be the actual sweat lodge. A cluster of Dinetah Gray 
striated sherds from a single vessel were observed 
about 4 m south of the sweat lodge. No additional 
artifacts were observed in the site area. 



Condition and Recommendations: This site is re- 
duced and stable with some minor erosion. This site 
should not suffer as a result of continued or in- 
creased visitation to the Largo School Pueblito. In- 
deed, an interpretive sign explaining the use of the 
sweat lodge in traditional Navajo culture could be 
incorporated into a tour route of the components in 
the pueblito complex. 

Artifacts: The only artifacts observed at the site 
consist of 11 sherds of a single Dinetah Gray vessel. 
The walls of this vessel are thin (4-5 mm), the paste 
is gray, temper is quartz, and the exterior surface is 
striated. 

LA 71558 

Field Number: OCA 408-4. 

Site Type: Probable garden-activity area. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Basketmaker 
III Period, Sambrito or early Rosa Phase, ca. AD 
500-700. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the south 
side of Cafion Largo on a ridge crest about 100 m 
above the canyon floor. It is located on the west side 
of an unnamed side canyon some 75 m west of the 
Largo School Pueblito and directly west of an old 
eroded and now abandoned road. The artifacts are 
scattered on the crest of the rocky ridge adjacent to 
a sage flat. The sage flat, about 50 x 30 m in size, has 
deep sandy soil and appears to be a suitable garden 
site. This is the only sage flat on the rocky pinon-ju- 
niper-covered south canyon slope for a considerable 
distance. 



Remarks: This sweat lodge site is clearly a compo- 
nent of the Largo School Complex. It is located in 
close proximity to the lower west complex area and 
it should be recognized as a provenience area of the 
pueblito. This is the only sweat lodge known in the 
Largo School Complex, but the considerable quan- 
tities of burned rock present suggest that it was well 
used. The site is somewhat atypical in its exposed 
position close to the pueblito, although at least one 
similar example at Split Rock Pueblito is known. 
The lack of midden sediments at the site but the 
presence of a single vessel cluster is typical. 



Description (Figure 10): This site consists of a 
ceramic-lithic scatter on the crest of a rocky ridge 
slope extending over an area 20 m north-south by 8 
m east-west. No evidence of structural features or 
cultural sediments was visible. Twelve pieces of 
fire-cracked rock were observed at the site. Scat- 
tered artifacts were found in exposed areas and the 
site appears to be surficial in nature. A sage flat with 
deep sandy soil is located directly west of the scatter. 
This fiat was probably used as a garden, and the site 
is an apparent activity area associated with the 
garden. 



25 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



Ridge slope 




408-3A 



Ash stain 



Burned 
rock 




Mound of ^^ 
burned rock 



t Sherd scatter 



/ 



Figures. LA 71557: Sweat lodge, Largo School Complex. 



26 



Chapter 2 




Figure 10. LA 71558: Rosa Phase ceramic and lithic scatter, Largo School Complex. 



27 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



Condition and Keconimendutions: The site is stable 
and undisturbed. An old roadbed, now abandoned, 
was constructed directly east of the site but did not 
impact it. The site appears to be largely surficial, 
although buried materials may be present in the 
adjacent sage flat. The site is secluded and no fore- 
seeable adverse impact is anticipated. 

Artifacts: A total of 22 sherds was observed in the 
site area (Table 8). brownwares (15 sherds) out- 
number graywares (6 sherds), suggesting a Late 
Sambrito or early Rosa Phase affiliation. Plain, Stri- 
ated, Punctate and Basket Impressed materials were 
recorded. Vessel walls were generally thick (6-8 
mm). 

The 25 lithic artifacts are listed in Table 9. They 
are predominantly flakes of gray quartzite, although 
a sandstone mano and a quartzite hammerstone 
were also present. 



LA 71559 



Table 8. Largo School Pueblito (LA 71558): 


Ceramic frequencies 




Ceramic ware-type 


Frequencies 


Plain Gray (Rosa), light striated 


5 


Brown polished 




(Sambrito or Rosa Brown) 


1 


Brown smoothed 




(Sambrito or Rosa Brown) 


13 


Gray, basket impressed 


1 


Brown punctate 


1 


Unidentified white ware (Rosa) 


1 


Total 


22 



Field Number: OCA 408-6, Largo School Complex. 

Site Type: Hand-and-toe holds access route. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Unknown. These 
holds are probably either Rosa Phase Anasazi or 
Gobernador Phase Navajo, because sites of both 
periods are common in the area. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the 
upper south cliff ledge of Canon Largo approxi- 
mately 200 m east of the Largo School Pueblito. 

Description (Figure 11): This site consists of three 
hand-and-toe holds pecked into the upper cliff ledge 
of Caiion Largo. The holds are 20 cm in width and 
10 cm in depth and provide access up a 2 m high cliff 
face. Boulders located at the cliff base provide a 
natural stairway to the upper ledge and the holds. 
These holds allow access to the mesa top about 200 
m east of the Largo School Pueblito. There are no 
observed sites in direct proximity to this access area. 

Remarks: These hand-and-toe holds allow for ac- 
cess up the upper cliff ledge of Caiion Largo. This 
is one of the few locations on the south cliff face in 
the area of the Largo School Pueblito where access 
may be gained. 



Condition and Recommendations: No manage- 
ment actions are recommended for this site. 

Artifacts: None. 



28 



Chapter 2 



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29 



Largo School Pueblito Complex 



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Chapter 2 



Largo School Complex 
Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1 is a mano fragment which was found on 
the mesa top about 150 m to the east of the upper 
Largo School Pueblito. The mano is of coarse sand- 
stone measuring 8 cm wide, 2.5 cm thick and 15 cm 
long. It is unifacially ground, and is broken perpen- 
dicular to the long axis. 

lO No. 2 consists of four sherds and a single piece 
of chipped stone which are located in a 20 m diam- 
eter area on the mesa top about 200 m east of the 
Largo School Pueblito. There are three Dinetah 
Gray plain sherds and one sherd of Gobernador 
Indented. A petrified wood angular debris fragment 
was also found in the area. 

lO No. 3, also found on the mesa top about 200 m 
east of the pueblito, consists of a single polyhedral 
chopper of gray quartzite material. It is located near 
the south Carion Largo cliff edge. 



lO No. 4 is a single gray quartzite flake which was 
found on a slope about 150 m south of the upper 
Largo School Pueblito. 

lO No. 5 is a groundstone artifact found in a 
slickrock area of the mesa top some 225 m east- 
southeast of the upper pueblito. The artifact is a 
multifaced rhyolite abrader or an ax fragment. 

lO No. 6 is a single Dinetah Gray sherd found at 
a cliff base some 150 m east-northeast of the Upper 
Largo School Pueblito. 

lO No. 7 is a single Dinetah Gray sherd found in 
the side canyon floor about 50 m south of the Lower 
Largo School Pueblito Site. 

lO No. 8 is a single item of burned sandstone 
found on a steep slope on the west side of the side 
canyon about 150 m west of the lower Largo School 
Pueblito. 

lO No. 9 is a single gray chalcedony flake found 
on a cliff base talus of the south Caiion Largo wall 
about 200 m east-northeast of the upper Largo 
School PuebHto. 



31 



Chapter 3 

Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 



The Hooded Fireplace study area is a 40-acre 
tract located in the upper western benchlands of 
Carion Largo approximately 23.5 miles south of the 
San Juan River (Figures 12 and 13). The study area 
is located on a northern point of Superior Mesa 
about 700 m west of Caiion Largo wash. The study 
area, which surrounds the Hooded Fireplace 
Pueblito, includes a high northern point of Superior 
Mesa, steep talus slopes of the north mesa, lower 
bench areas, and open sage flats below the mesa. 
The pueblito is located on the north point of the 
lower bench. A west tributary rincon of Caiion 
Largo is located directly north of the study area. 

Most of the area is an open pihon-juniper forest- 
land. Some scrub oak is present on the high talus 
slopes and mesa top. The plain below the mesa is a 
sage-grassland with scattered piiion-juniper. 

Elevation in the study area ranges from 6780 ft on 
the high mesa point to 6400 ft in the lower drainage 
area on the north boundary. Slickrock tinajas on the 
canyon floor 100-200 m northeast of the pueblito 
provided a seasonal source of water. 

Table 10 lists the sites, while the following text 
describes them. Survey reconnaissance outside the 
40-acre study area revealed two Gobernador Phase 
sites with five forkstick structures located on a bench 
about 200-300 m north-northwest of the pueblito. 
No Gobernador Phase sites, other than the pueblito 
and its associated features, were found in the study 
area. No sweat lodges or other associated site types 
were found at the Hooded Fireplace Pueblito. This 
is most atypical. 

Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 

LA 5662 

Field Number: OCA 408-8. 

Site Name: Hooded Fireplace Pueblito. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, possible 
Pueblo Refugee, Gobernador Phase, 18th Century. 

Previous References and Designations: 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map. Site 
AR-30-01-12 (1974). 

Hadlock (1959). SJAS Site RA-13. 

Powers and Johnson (1987:52-53). 

Location-Situation: The Hooded Fireplace 
Pueblito is located in the Superior Mesa area on a 
high, elevated (6560 ft) western bench of Caiion 
Largo. The pueblito is 900 m west of Caiion Largo 
and 110 m above the canyon floor. The site is placed 
on a low, north-facing bench point. It is not visible 
from the canyon floor, but is exposed and conspicu- 
ous from much of the western bcnchland. A talus 
slope with detached boulders (20 cm high) and a low 
cliff ledge (5 m high) surround the complex, but the 
position is not considered fortified. Access to the 
pueblito is in no manner restricted. Exposure is 
open and most of the site is on the level bench top. 

A mantle of sand and exposed bedrock surfaces 
are visible on the bench top. Boulder-strewn talus 
slopes appear above and below the complex. The 
location is within a pinon-juniper forest with a sage- 
grassland understory. 

There are numerous slickrock tinajas in a side 
canyonhead 200 m north of the pueblito. This was 
probably a source for the domestic water supply. 

Description (Plate 3): The Hooded Fireplace Site 
consists of various structures and middens in three 
proveniences that extend over an area approxi- 
mately 175 m north-south by 125 m east-west. The 
six-room pueblito is located on a north bench point 
in the Provenience 3 area. Adjacent to the pueblito 
are six middens, three masonry-ba.sed hogans, an 
enclosure (possible corral), and a possible ramada. 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 



# 



HOODED FIREPLACE 



Survey boundary 

Site 

Isolated occurrence 



I I FEET 



N 

<2> 



Figure 12. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences for the Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 

survey area. 



34 



Chapter 3 





Masonry-based hogan 

(y Boulder-backed room 

O Ramada 

y'j Enclosure/corral 



Q Midden 
O Walled stone cavity 

Rock concentration 



Hooded Fireplace Comple: 

Slielch map 200m E-W < 200m N-S 



Figure 13. Schematic map of the Hooded Fireplace Complex. 



35 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 



Table 10. Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex (LA 5662) 



Size: 175 x125 m 

Provenience 1 - Southwest site area 

• Masonry box structure (Feature 2). 

• Concentration of rocks, possible structure (Feature 1). 

• Midden scatter (Midden 1). 

• Hearth. 

Provenience 2 - Southeast site area 

• Corral enclosure (Feature 5). 

• Cliff base storage unit (Feature 3). 

• Hearth (Feature 6). 

• Two boulder-backed masonry rooms (Features 4 and 7). 

• Midden (Midden 2). 

Provenience 3 - North site area 

• Six-room L-shaped pueblito roomblock with three possible second-story or parapet walls. 

• Possible ramada structure (Feature 9). 

• Masonry-based enclosure, possible corral (Feature 10). 

• Three masonry-based hogans (Features 11, 12, and 13). 

• Six middens: three associated with the pueblito (Middens 6, 7, and 8) and three associated with hogans 
(Middens 3, 4, and 5). 

Anasazi site 

• Rosa Phase ceramic-lithic scatter and hearth (LA 71560). 



On the western bench edge, 93 m southwest of the 
pueblito in the Provenience 1 area, is an additional 
midden scatter, a concentration of unburned rock, 
and a masonry box. On the edge of the east bench, 
130 m southeast of the pueblito in the Provenience 
2 area, are a midden, two boulder-backed rooms, a 
cliff base storage unit, and a possible corral. 

Ceramics from each of the proveniences indicate 
a Gobernador Phase occupation. Archeological 
survey in the 40-acre tract surrounding Hooded 
Fireplace failed to reveal additional associated sites. 
Two Gobernador Phase sites, however, were found 
in a brief reconnaissance about 250 m and 300 m 
north-northwest of the pueblito. Curiously, no 
sweat lodges were found in the Hooded Fireplace 
Complex. 

Provenience 1 

Provenience 1 (Figure 14), which consists of a 
midden scatter, a concentration of scattered rock, 
and a masonry box, is located on the open bench flat 



93 m south of the pueblito roomblock. 

An isolated masonry box structure (Feature 2) is 
1 X 2 m in size and is located near a group of small 
boulders at the talus base. The structure was built 
of sandstone blocks 20-50 cm in size. Associated 
rubble suggests an original wall height of 50-75 cm. 
Estimated depth of fill in the box is 25-35 cm. No 
evidence of fire was observed here, and no artifacts 
are present. This is the only masonry box structure 
located in the BLM Pueblito Survey. 

Located 28 m to the west-southwest of the box is 
Feature 1: a midden area, a hearth, and a scatter of 
stone elements. A scatter of small unburned sand- 
stone elements (mainly 2-5 cm in size and occasion- 
ally up to 10-20 cm) appears in a 4 m diameter area. 
No alignment is visible. This concentration of rock 
appears to be some type of scattered structure. Ad- 
jacent to the concentration is a midden 12 x 15 m in 
size (Midden 1 ), in which 42 sherds, 6 chipped stone 
artifacts, and 3 groundstone artifacts were observed. 
No bone or burned sandstone spalls are present. 



36 



Chapter 3 




37 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 




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38 



Chapter 3 



There is no charcoal-stained soil. Depth of the scat- 
ter is estimated to be 10 cm or less. 

In the south area of the scatter there is a hearth 
defined by a concentration of burned sandstone 
spalls (5-10 cm in size) in a 50 cm diameter area. 

Provenience 2 

Provenience 2 (Figure 15) is located 130 m south 
of the pueblito and consists of three masonry units, 
a probable corral alignment, and a midden area. 
These features appear in an area 55 m east-west by 
40 m north-south. 

A small masonry unit (Feature 3) built into a small 
cliff base cavity is present above the eastern bench. 
This apparent storage unit is 1.5 m in diameter and 
is semicircular in form. The unit is made of stacked 
sandstone blocks 30-40 cm in size. The unit contains 
a packrat nest and has an estimated 25 cm of fill. 

A boulder-backed room (Feature 4), 3.5 x 2 m in 
size, is located at the talus base backing the eastern 
bench. The room, which is built up against a large 
boulder, is made of stacked sandstone blocks 50-75 
cm in size. The wall stands up to 50 cm high. There 
is some rubble suggesting an original wall elevation 
of 1-1.5 m. The superstructure of wood no doubt 
rested on the adjacent boulder top. 

Located on the bench flat directly below the Fea- 
ture 4 room, is Feature 5, an alignment of large 
blocks, which is a probable corral. Large stones 
30-60 cm in size form a semicircular alignment in a 
10 m long arc. These stones are the probable base 
of a brush corral enclosure, formed by large boul- 
ders on the talus base, the stone alignment, and a 
probable deadwood fence. A hearth (Feature 6) is 
defined by a small area of burned sandstone slabs in 
aim area on the bench top. 

Another possible boulder-backed room (Feature 
7) is located on the bench 18 m north of the corral. 
It is defined by a low semicircular alignment of 
sandstone blocks that enclose an area 2 x 1 m in size. 

A midden (the Provenience 2 midden) is located 
among the rocks and on the talus slope directly 
below the east bench. This midden, which is concen- 
trated in a group of detached boulders directly 
below the bench edge, is in a 12 x 8 m area. Dark 
charcoal-stained soil with an estimated 25-50 cm 
depth is present in this area. A few burned sand- 
stone spalls were observed in the vicinity. Ceramic, 
lithic, and bone materials are present. Cultural ma- 
terials are scattered on the eroded talus and extend 



about 22 m down the slope from the bench edge. 

Provenience 3 

Provenience 3 (Figure 16) is the main area of the 
Hooded Fireplace Complex. It includes the six- 
room pueblito, a large masonry enclosure, three 
masonry-based hogans, a possible ramada, and six 
middens. 

The Hooded Fireplace Pueblito is built on the 
north point of a low bench. The structure is an 
L-shaped roomblock 15 m in length with a roughly 
north-south orientation. There are six rooms in the 
block, of which at least three had second-story 
rooms or parapet walls. Partial roofs remain intact 
in Rooms 3 and 4. Standing wall elevations are a 
maximum of 2.2 m. The south rooms (Rooms 5 and 
6) have collapsed to a 50 cm high rubble mound. 
Hooded fireplaces are present in Rooms 2 and 3. 
An exterior entryway is present in Room 1 at the 
ground level, while Room 3 was entered through a 
roof-top hatchway. There is a wood rack in the 
southeast corner of Room 1 and small port-windows 
are present in the west walls of Rooms 2 and 3 and 
in the east wall of Room 1. Round and hewn beams 
appear in the roomblock area and are scattered on 
the bench and on the slopes adjacent to the pueblito. 
None of these timbers have been analyzed for tree- 
ring dating. 

A possible ramada. Feature 9, is located on the 
bench top directly east of the pueblito. A roughly 
rectangular alignment and a concentration of sand- 
stone slabs occur in a 2 x 4 m area. There is also a 
large forkstick post. The fill in this area is shallow 
with an estimated 10-20 cm depth to bedrock. 

A masonry-based enclosure (Feature 10) is lo- 
cated on the bench edge directly south of the 
pueblito. It is 7 X 7 m in size. The east wall is a low 
50 cm high rock ledge. The other walls were built of 
sandstone blocks 20-60 cm in size. Wall rubble sug- 
gests an original elevation of 50 cm to 1 m. This 
enclosure may have been a corral or animal pen. Fill 
in the grassy area of the enclosure is estimated to be 
25-50 cm in depth. The area directly south of the 
enclosure may have been cleared. 

There are three hogan rings and three middens 
located on the bench top 30-40 m south of the 
pueblito. The hogans (Features 11, 12, and 13) are 
masonry-based structures 5-6 m in diameter. When 
intact, the walls had an estimated 50 cm to 1 m 
elevation. The superstructure was probably cor- 



39 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 




40 



Chapter 3 




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Fea 10 
Enclosure 






^ 



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Midden 3 






lase of talus 





^ 



Midden 8 







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Fea 13 
Hogan 



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M 



Low ledge 



Figure 16. LA 5662: Provenience 3, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito. 



41 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 



beled log construction. Two of the rooms appear 
to have had north cntryways. Walls which stand 
from 30-50 cm arc built of blocks 20-60 cm in size 
with occasional large 75 cm to 1.25 cm blocks. 
Badly deteriorated roof beams remain in the 
rooms. The estimated depth of fill in the units is 
25 cm. Middens 4 and 5 appear to be directly 
associated with the hogans. Midden 3 is located 
on the west bench edge between Feature 13 (a 
hogan) and the enclosure (Feature 10). 

Midden 4 is located adjacent and south of 
hogan Feature 13. It is 5 x 5 m in size with an 
estimated depth of 15-25 cm. The area is defined 
by an accumulation of dark charcoal-laden soil 
and a concentration of artifacts. Midden 5 is 
located adjacent to and east of Feature 11 (a 
hogan). It is 6 X 4 m in size and is defined by dark 
charcoal-laden sediments estimated to be 10-15 
cm in depth. Midden 3 on the west bench edge 
is 8 X 6 m in size, with an estimated 15-25 cm 
depth. The area is defined by dark charcoal- 
laden soil and associated artifacts. A few burned 
sandstone spalls are present in the Midden 3 
area. 

In addition to the bench top middens, there 
are three middens on the talus slope below the 
pueblito. Midden 7, located directly north of and 
below the pueblito, is the most extensive. It is 10 
X 15 m in size with a depth of 50 cm. Dark 
charcoal-laden sediments and an abundance of 
artifacts define the midden area. Some burned 
sandstone spalls appear in this midden, in con- 
trast to the near absence of burned spalls in the 
bench top middens. Midden 6 is located along 
the west bench edge. It is 20 x 10 m in size but is 
rather shallow, with an estimated 20 cm depth. 
Much of this midden is scattered by erosion down 
the slope. Midden 8 is located at the cliff ledge 
base east of the bench. It is 15 x 5 m in size with 
an estimated depth of 25 cm. The characteristics 
of the middens present at the Hooded Fireplace 
Complex are listed in Table 11. Artifact samples 
were examined from six of the eight midden 



Condition and Recommendations: In general, 
the Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex is in 
good condition. The pueblito was stabilized by 
the BLM in 1974 and much of the structure, 
including two roofs, remains intact. One roof in 





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42 



Chapter 3 



Room 2 was destroyed by fire sometime between 
1959 and 1974. There is little evidence of looting at 
the site and erosion does not pose a serious problem. 
The Hooded Fireplace Pueblito receives consid- 
erable visitation. Unauthorized collection poses the 
most serious adverse impact. Log ladders present 
at the site in 1959 were stolen. It is recommended 
that surface artifacts, especially bone being broken 
by foot traffic, be collected and curated. Also, the 
abundant tree-ring material present at the site 
should be collected and dated. No dates have as yet 
been obtained from this significant site. 

Artifacts: Ceramic samples were examined from six 
of the eight midden areas. A total of 306 sherds was 
identified (Table 12). Dinetah Gray materials rep- 
resent 85% of the sample. Exterior surfaces of the 
smoothed and striated type appear with nearly equal 
frequency. Most of the decorated material is 
Gobernador Polychrome. Intrusive Puebloan ce- 
ramics include Puname Polychrome, Tewa Poly- 
chrome, and Acoma (probable Ako) Polychrome. 
No Rio Grande Glazeware appears in the collection. 
Sixty-eight bone fragments were also observed in the 
middens (Table 12). 

Lithic samples were analyzed from five of the 
eight midden areas (Tables 13-17). The majority 
were flakes of chert, quartzite, petrified wood, chal- 
cedony, and Jemez obsidian. Four manos and mano 
fragments, four projectile points, two slab metates, 
and two bifaces were also present. 

LA 71560 

Field Number: OCA 408-7. 

Site Type: Hearth and ccramic-lithic scatter. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Basketmaker 
III Rosa Phase. 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the 
upper west benchland of Cafion Largo some 700 m 
west of the canyon floor. It is located 150 m east of 
the Hooded Fireplace Pueblito and 100 m west- 
northwest of a well head. The site is situated on the 
summit and east slope of a low sandy ridge in an open 
sage flat. Scattered piiion and juniper appear 
nearby. The site is 200 m south of the upper canyon 
talus and is exposed to the east with a slope of 2-5 
degrees. 

Description (Figure 17): This site consists of a ce- 
ramic-lithic scatter, with occasional fire-cracked 
rock, extending over an area 20 m north-south by 30 
m east-west. There is no evidence of structures. The 
fire-cracked rock is most common in a 5 m diameter 
area of charcoal-stained soil. The fire-cracked rock 
consists of small angular sandstone and occasional 
quartzite elements 2-5 cm in size. The estimated 
maximum depth of cultural fill in the site is 50 cm. It 
is estimated that 50 sherds and 100 lithics are present 
on the surface. The sandy alluvium in the nearby 
arroyo may have been a garden area. The site ap- 
pears to have a short-term habitation or encamp- 
ment and processing area. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. It should not be 
impacted by continued or increased visitation to the 
Hooded Fireplace Pueblito. 

Artifacts: Ceramic materials observed at the site 
indicate a Basketmaker III Rosa Phase occupation. 
Ceramic ware-types observed at the site appear in 
Table 18. 

A sample of approximately 25-30% of the lithics 
present at the site is defined in Table 19. Most of the 
22 artifacts are flakes and angular debris of quartz- 
ite, chalcedony, and petrified wood. One projectile 
point and several cores were also observed. 



43 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 





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Chapter 3 



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Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1 consists of two plain polished Anasazi 
gray sherds found on an upper arroyo slope in a 
sage flat about 75 m northeast of the Hooded 
Fireplace Pueblito. 

lO No. 2 consists of two Gobernador sherds 
from a single bowl and one quartzite flake, found 
on the sage flat 50 m east of the Hooded Fireplace 
Complex. This material is apparently artifactual 
"noise" from Provenience 2 of the Hooded Fire- 
place Pueblito. 

lO No. 3 is located on a high bench point 70 m 
above and 200 m south of the Hooded Fireplace 
Pueblito where a few scattered artifacts were 
found. These artifacts (which include two Anasazi 
plain gray sherds, three flakes, and one ham- 
merstone) were scattered over a 100 m area on the 
sandy mesa top. No evidence of cultural sedi- 
ments or structural features is present on the mesa 
point. 



Table 18. Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 
(LA 71560): Ceramic frequencies 



Ceramic ware-type 



Frequencies 



Rosa Brown 

(1 vessel, thick wall, polished exterior) 

Piedra Grey 

Rosa Brown, striated 

(deep striations on exterior surface) 

Rosa Grey 

Rosa Grey, Fugitive Red 

Lino Grey 

Lino Grey, polished 

Rosa Grey, basket impressed 

Unidentified white ware 

Glaze-on-red 



Total 



* This sherd is probably intrusive to the site area. It 

has crushed white rock temper and a dark red slip. 

Wall is 8 mm thick. The vessel is either a 

Rio Grande (Jlazewarc or an aberrant San Juan 

Red. 



49 



Hooded Fireplace Pueblito Complex 









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51 



Chapter 4 

Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



The Split Rock study area is a 40-acre tract lo- 
cated on the high eastern bench and mesa rim of 
Caiion Largo south of Dogie Canyon and north of 
Tapacito Canyon (Figures 18 and 19). The area 
covers portions of the high eastern bench, sections 
of the cliff talus, and ledges of the upper canyon wall 
and an area of high eastern mesa top. Elevations in 
the study area range from 6480 ft to 6750 ft. Open 
sage-grassland tracts exist on the benchland in the 
west study area and above the canyon on the mesa 
top in the extreme east study area. The upper can- 
yon walls are clad in an open piiion-juniper forest- 
land. Occasional stands of Gambles Oak appear on 
the ledges of the canyon rim. In addition to the 
pifion-juniper, the upper canyon wall is populated 
by squawbush, rabbitbrush, wide leaf yucca, and 
occasional cactus. 

The upper canyon wall here is formed by a dou- 
ble-stepped cliff with a central bench and an upper 
canyon rim ledge. Large boulders detached from 
the cliffs are strewn on the talus slopes below. Ac- 
cess up the cliffs is restricted to occasional collapsed 
sections or to clefts. 

No surface water was observed in the study area 
nor were seasonal tinajas or slickrock catchment 
areas encountered. There is, however, an ample 
supply of water in the tinajas found in the Tapacito 
study area approximately 1 km to the southwest. 
The Split Rock Site is the only pueblito investigated 
in this study that does not have a surface water 
supply within 100-200 m. One site, LA 71562, is 
located just outside the north boundary but is in- 
cluded in this study. Table 20 lists the sites in the 
complex. 

Split Rock Pueblito 

LA 5664 

Field Number: OCA 408-20. 
Site Type: Pueblito. 



Cultural-Temporal Afllnlty: Navajo and possible 
Pueblo Refugee, Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Previous References and Designations: 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map. Site 
AR-30-01-005 (1974). 

Correll and Brugge (1959). Navajo Land Claims 
Site No. E-CL-UL-SS. 

Hadlock (1959). SJAS Site RA 15/LA 5664. 

Powers and Johnson (1987:54-55). 

Location-Situation: The Split Rock Pueblito is lo- 
cated on a high eastern bench of Caiion Largo south 
of Dogie Canyon and north of Tapacito Canyon at 
an elevation of 6580 ft. The site is situated on a 
narrow bench of the upper canyon wall, which forms 
a 20 m wide shelf near the canyon rim. It is approx- 
imately 800 m east from and 125 m above the floor 
of Canon Largo. 

The pueblito structure was built on the summit of 
a high boulder near the bench cliff edge. The site is 
exposed and visibility is extended. The location, 
although exposed, is not visible from the canyon 
floor. The position on an elevated bench and on the 
boulder summit is considered to be fortified. 

Access to the bench shelf from the open sageland 
below is restricted to a single stepped cleft in the cliff 
wall about 35 m south of the site. A steep boulder 
strewn talus below the upper canyon rim backs the 
bench area. The area fosters growths of piiion, juni- 
per, sage, wide leaf yucca, snakeweed, loco weed, 
and grasses. On the adjacent canyon rim are occa- 
sional growths of oak and squawbush. 

Description (Figure 20): The Split Rock Pueblito is 
a four-room structure constructed on the top of a 
huge boulder (Plate 4). On the bench adjacent to 
the pueblito, in a 50 x 30 m area, are two, or perhaps 
three, forkstick structures, three midden areas, two 
hearths, a sweat lodge, and a partially walled over- 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



SPLIT ROCK 



% LA71S 



> 71571 3 ^ LA 715; 

IA5664 ^ ^ 

0lA71Sei V 



UA 71568 
I 1X71589 




TAPACITO 



Survey boundary 

Site 

Isolated occurrence 



A 



Figure 18. Survey boundaries, sites, and isolated occurrences for the Split Rock and Tapacito 

Pueblito Survey Area. 



54 



Chapter 4 




Figure 19. Schematic map of the Split Rock Complex. 



55 



Split Rock Puebtito Complex 



Table 20. Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex 

Size: 50 x 30 m 

• Four-room boulder top masonry pueblito (LA 5664). 

• Small overhang-shelter under the boulder with a single wall at one end of the shelter (Feature 2). 

• Two forkstick hogans (Features 1 and 5). 

• Possible small forkstick structure (Feature 4). 

• Sweat lodge (Feature 7). 

• Two hearths (Features 9 and 11). 

• Five middens ( fatures 3, 6, 8, 11, and 12). 

Greater Complex 

Size: 300 x500 m 

• Four sweat lodge sites (LA 71570, LA 71571, LA 71566, and LA 71564). 

• Check rockshelter (LA 71563). 

• Three possible outlying forkstick sites (LA 71567, LA 71569, and LA 71570) with middens and hearths. 

• Two multiple hearth sites (LA 71565 and LA 71568). 

• Rock art panel (LA 71820). 

• Cache of weaving tools (LA 71599). 

Anasazi Sites 

• Two Rosa-Piedra Phase Anasazi hearth sites (LA 71561 and LA 71562). 

• One Rosa-style rock art panel (LA 71563). 



hang under the boulder. Some midden debris also 
exists at the cliff base below the pueblito. Associ- 
ated sites which constitute the known extent of the 
greater Split Rock Complex include four additional 
sweat lodges, one rockshelter, one rock art panel, 
four hearths, two possible forkstick sites, and one 
cache. 

The Pueblito 

The pueblito is four masonry rooms, located on 
the summit of a huge boulder 10 m high and 10 x 15 m 
in size. The elevation of this boulder-top site is 
considerably magnified from below by its placement 
on the cliff edge. The boulder is severed by a large 
crack, thus the name Split Rock. Access to the 
summit is restricted to a rather difficult ascent up the 
boulder. An arrow port in the corner of Room 2 
opens onto the crack entryway to the summit. The 
rooms are reduced to wall elevations of 25 cm to 
1.4 m. None of the roofs are intact. 



A small sheltered overhang (6 x 2 m in size and 
1.5 m high) exists below the boulder on the east side. 
A stacked, 3 m long, rock wall (Feature 2) is adja- 
cent to the boulder at the north end of the shelter. 
It was made of sandstone blocks 20-30 cm in size, but 
incorporated a few native boulders 50 cm to 1 m in 
size. This wall was probably a windbreak for the 
shelter. Fill in the shelter is an estimated maximum 
depth of 50 cm. 

A few scattered beams which might produce tree- 
ring dates are in the shelter below the boulder and 
on the talus below the cliff base. One beam fragment 
in the shelter is a section of a notched log ladder. 

Forkstick Structures 

There are two, possibly three, forkstick structures 
at the Split Rock Site. Two (Features 1 and 5) are 
well defined by concentric log concentrations. An- 
other possible forkstick (Feature 4) is defined by a 
scatter of juniper slats. 



56 



Chapter 4 



Fea 7 . • 
Sweat lodge rV 




Figure 20. LA 5664: Split Rock Pueblito. 



57 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 




Plate 4. Split Rock Pueblito, looking west. 



Feature 1 is 5 m in diameter. A few unburned 
sandstone slabs on the west side of the room, 20-40 
cm in size, appear to be basal stones. One beam in 
the concentration is in good condition and appears 
suitable for dating. Feature 5 is about 4 m in diam- 
eter and is defined by a concentration of juniper 
slats. One pine log is also present. The room is 
sand-filled to an estimated 25 cm depth. A few 
unburned sandstone blocks, 20-30 cm in size, are 
located on the south side of the structure and appear 
to be a basal apron. 

A possible forkstick structure (Feature 4) is lo- 
cated on the north site area adjacent to the Feature 
8 midden area. It is defined by a scattered concen- 
tration of juniper slats in area 2 x 3 m. 

Sweat Lodge 

A sweat lodge discard pile (Feature 7) is located 
on the northwest edge of the site. It is defined by a 
pile of burned sandstone blocks 10-20 cm in size. 
The mound is 5 m in diameter and 30 cm high. No 



wood remnants of the lodge were observed. This 
feature has all the characteristics of a sweat lodge 
discard pile, but its position directly adjacent to the 
pueblito is atypical. 

Hearths 
Two hearths are present in the north site. The 
Feature 10 hearth is defined by an ash stain 1.5 m in 
diameter. A few burned sandstone spalls are pres- 
ent and one sherd and one flake were found. The 
Feature 9 hearth is slab-lined and 50 cm across, and 
is located adjacent to the Feature 8 midden. Two 
burned upright sandstone slabs define the partially 
eroded structure. 

Middens 

There are five small middens at the Split Rock 
Site (Table 21), and scattered artifact debris is 
strewn on the talus slope below the pueblito. It is 
estimated that these middens combined contain ap- 
proximately 18.6 cubic meters of cultural fill. 



58 



Chapter 4 



Feature 3 Midden 

This midden and probable activity area is located 
on the bench directly below and east of Split Rock 
Pueblito. It is an area of dark charcoal-laden sedi- 
ments and a concentration of artifacts 7 x 5 m in size. 
Some slats and wood beam fragments are present 
here but are probably scattered debris from the 
adjacent pueblito. Artifact densities at this midden 
are the highest in the site. Occasional burned sand- 
stone spalls are present, and bone (some of it 
burned) is common. 

Feature 6 Midden 

This feature is located in the northwest site area 
adjacent to forkstick Feature 5. The midden is 4 x 
5 m in size with an estimated 10-20 cm depth. The 
area is defined by charcoal-laden sediments and 
concentrated artifacts. Occasional burned sand- 
stone spalls are present. Bone, some burned, is also 
present. 

Feature 8 Midden 

This midden is located in the north site area 
between a slab hearth (Feature 9) and a possible 
forkstick (Feature 4). The midden is 5 x 4 m in size 
and 10-20 cm in depth and is partially cut by an 
arroyo. The soil is quite dark and charcoal laden. 
Occasional burned sandstone spalls are present. 
Ceramics are common but only traces of lithic ma- 
terial and bone occur. Nine pieces of burned adobe 
material, three with beam molds, were found. This 
is constructional debris from a burned log structure. 



Feature 11 Midden 

This is a small midden 4 m in diameter with an 
estimated 20 cm depth and defined by dark charoal- 
laden sediment and artifacts. A few sandstone 
blocks, 20-30 cm in size, on the west side of the 
midden may be a structure. Artifact density is low, 
bone is common, and a single hammerstone was 
observed here. 

Feature 12 Midden 

This is also a small midden located in a crack 
between rocks at the cliff base below the pueblito. 
The midden covers a small area, but has up to 50 cm 
depth. 

Condition and Recommendations: The Split Rock 
Pueblito Complex, although substantially reduced, 
is in good condition. There are a number of areas, 
however, in the site that are subject to erosion. None 
of the roofs in the pueblito remain intact and only a 
few timbers are present. 

Midden Features 6, 8, and 12 are subject to lateral 
erosion. Erosion in Feature 12 at the base of the cliff 
is rather active. Test excavations conducted at this 
pueblito complex should target this deposit. Contin- 
ued visitation and any stabilization activities at the 
site will probably result in an adverse impact to the 
Feature 3 midden. This midden is located on a 
sandy slope directly below the boulder and is ex- 
posed to foot traffic (as our survey work amply 
demonstrated). The cultural sediments and arti- 
facts in this midden are clearly disturbed by foot 





Table 21. 


Split Rock Pueblito (LA 5664) middens 








Area (m ) 


Estimated 


Estimated 
Fill (m-*) 


Midden No. 


Size (m) 


Depth (cm) 


Feature 3 


7x5 


35 


25 


8.75 


Feature 6 


5x4 


20 


15 


3.00 


Feature 8 


6x2 


12 


20 


2.40 


Feature 11 


4x4 


16 


15-20 


2.40 


Feature 12 


2x2 


4 


50 


2.00 


Total 




S7 


125-130 


1S..'^5 



59 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



traffic because the midden is located in the precise 
area of visitor focus. Artifacts from this midden and 
from other areas in the site should be collected by 
provenience and curated to prevent unauthorized 
collection. This should include the bone (which is 
rather abundant), since much of this faunal material 
can be identified if not fragmented more than it 
already is. If test excavations are initiated at Split 
Rock, the Feature 3 midden should be selected to 
mitigate adverse impacts to this area by foot traffic. 

Artifacts: A sample of 150 sherds (Table 22), rep- 
resenting all visible surface materials, was selected 
for in-field documentation at Split Rock Pueblito. 
Previous collections from the site were made by the 
San Juan Archaeological Society and by the Navajo 
Land Claims study. 

Most of the ceramic material in the Split Rock 
sample is Dinetah Gray (91%), with only minor 
quantities of Gobernador Polychrome (7 sherds), 
Frances Polychrome (2 sherds) and Puname Poly- 
chrome (4 sherds). In the Dinetah Gray collection 
most of the material (75%) exhibits a smoothed 
exterior surface while striated surfaces represent 
only about 24% of the utility sample. This is a 
comparatively low incidence of the striated style. 
One Dinetah Gray sherd with a filleted neck area 
was found on the slope below the pueblito. This is 
the only filleted sherd found in the entire BLM 
1989-1990 Pueblito Survey. The fillets are of the 
pinch or thin-lug type which appear to be applique 
with a high relief. Similar fillets are illustrated by 
Carlson (1965:66-67) from vessels found at Three 
Corn Ruin, and by Marshall (1985:155) from the 
Dinetah District. 

Most of the decorated material found at the site 
is either Gobernador Polychrome or Frances Poly- 
chrome. The only intrusive Puebloan material is 
Puname Polychrome from the Zia-Santa Ana 
region. 

There are a few lithic artifacts at Split Rock 
Pueblito. A systematic examination of the site area 
revealed only 15 lithic artifacts (Table 23). Eight 
were flakes and retouched flakes of chalcedony, 
petrified wood, and Washington Pass chert. Ham- 
merstones, a chopper, a core, and a pecking stone 
were also present. 









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60 



Chapter 4 



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61 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



LA 71561 



Field Number: OCA 408-9. 

Site Type: Hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Late Rosa- 
Early Piedra Phase (late Basketmaker Ill-early 
Pueblo I). 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the open 
bcnchland shelf of Caiion Largo about 700 m east of 
the canyon floor. The site is 200 m south of Split 
Rock Pueblito, on the crest and upper north slope 
of a east-west-trending ridge in the open sage-grass- 
land plain. It is about 100 m west of the upper 
canyon talus. The ridge is a low sandy formation 
with a slight slope to the west. The area is exposed 
in an open sage-grassland with pinon-juniper forest 
on the talus base 100 m to the east. 

Description (Figure 21): The site consists of a series 
of hearths and associated artifacts extending over an 
area 50 m east-west by 25 m north-south. Lithic 
debitage is abundant, groundstone is present, and 
ceramics are also present but infrequent. Fire- 
cracked rock hearth debris is concentrated on the 
north ridge slope in a 20 x 6 m area designated as 
Feature 2. The fire-cracked rock is mostly burned 
sandstone spalls and slabs 5-15 cm in size. The soil 
in the Feature 2 area is dark and charcoal-laden. 

One intact hearth, Feature 1, is a circular slab- 
and block-lined structure 50 cm in diameter. Addi- 
tional buried hearths probably exist on the ridge 
crest. Scattered around the hearth debris on the 
north slope are lithic and ceramic artifacts. In the 
northwest site area, outside of the hearth debris, is a 
concentration of lithic debitage material designated 
as Feature 3. No structures, other than the hearths, 
appear to be present. 

Remarks: This is an apparent Rosa-Piedra Phase 
processing encampment characterized by multiple 
hearths with a diversity of lithic tool types. 
Groundstone is present and ceramics are infre- 
quent. The abundance of chipped stone suggests 
that manufacturing and butchering activities were an 
important aspect of site use. This site contrasts with 
nearby LA 71562, where a single Rosa-Piedra hearth 
had abundant ceramics but no lithics. 



Condition and Recommendations: This .site is ex- 
posed and partially eroded on the north ridge slope. 
Most of the hearths in this area have been scattered, 
although some intact hearths appear on the crest of 
the ridge and other buried features may be present. 
The estimated maximum depth of cultural sedi- 
ments in the site is 25 cm. This site is outside the 
area of frequent visitation at Split Rock Pueblito and 
should not be impacted. No management actions 
are recommended. 

Artifacts: Ceramic materials at the site are infre- 
quent in contrast to the abundant lithic artifacts. 
Only seven sherds were found in the site area. These 
include Rosa Gray (one sherd), Piedra Gray (five 
sherds), and an unidentified mineral-painted 
whiteware (one sherd). 

An estimated 20% of the lithic assemblage at this 
site is documented in Table 24. Most Hakes were 
composed of quartzite, chalcedony, petrified wood, 
and chert. Two manos, a biface, and several other 
artifacts were also present. 

LA 71562 

Field Number: OCA 408-10. 

Site Type: Hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Alllnity: Anasazi, Early Piedra 
Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on an open 
benchland of the upper eastern shelf of Caiion Largo 
some 600 m east of the canyon floor. It is 350 m 
south-southwest from Split Rock Pueblito. The site 
is situated in a blowout near the south terminus of a 
low sandy ridge. 

Description (Figure 22): This site consists of a 
hearth and ceramic scatter in an area 14 x 16 m in 
size. Burned sandstone spalls from what appears to 
have been a single hearth are concentrated in the 
southern site area. A scatter of grayware sherds, 
most from a single vessel, are present. The esti- 
mated depth of cultural sediments is 10-20 cm. 

Remarks: This Formative Period Anasazi Site ap- 
pears to be a limited function processing area. This 
site contrasts to another Formative Period Anasazi 



62 



Chapter 4 



site nearby, LA 71561, in that LA 71561 has an 
abundance of Hthic artifacts but few ceramics. 

Condition and Recommendations: Wind erosion in 
the blowout area has resulted in the deflation of the 
site. The hearth is scattered but some shallow cul- 
tural sediments may remain intact in the south site 
area. No management actions are recommended. 



Artifacts: It is estimated that about 100 sherds ex- 
istin the site area. Most of the ceramics inspected 
are part of a single Piedra Gray Plain jar (31 sherds). 
Other types include a Piedra Gray vessel with a 
scored interior (5 sherds), a flat-based Piedra Gray 
vessel (1 sherd), and a basket impressed grayware 
vessel (2 sherds). The presence of Piedra Gray 
materials in the site suggests an Early Pueblo I oc- 
cupation. No lithic artifacts are present. 



Fea 1 
Hearth 



Ridge slope 




10 20 

J \ I I I I I I 



Figure 21. LA 71561: Anasazi hearth, Split Rock Complex. 



63 



I? 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 






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64 



Chapter 4 



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Figure 22, LA 71562: Anasazi hearth, Split Rock Complex. 



65 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



LA 71563 



LA 71564 



Field Number: OCA 408-11. 



Field Number: OCA 408-12. 



Site Type: Rockshelter and rock art panel. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Formative Period An- 
asazi rock art and minor early Navajo utilization. 

Location-Situation: This rockshelter is located at 
the cliff base of the lower ledge some 175 m south- 
east of Split Rock Pueblito. The shelter is on the 
upper eastern cliff, elevation 6600 ft, comprising the 
eastern shelf of Caiion Largo approximately 850 m 
east of Largo Wash. The shelter is concealed in 
piiion-juniper, and large boulders exist on the talus 
slope directly below. 

Description (Figures 23 and 24): The small 
rockshelter and a rock art panel are located along 
the cliff base in an area 30 m east-west by 6 m 
north-south. The rockshelter is a crescentic cavity 
20 m long, 6 m in maximum depth, and 50 cm to 1.5 
m high. The roof of the shelter is smoke-blackened. 
Stone breakdown appears in about half of the shelter 
and the other half contains earth fill estimated to be 
25-50 cm in depth. A hammerstone and two sherds 
were found on the surface at the entrance. The rock 
art panel is located on the cliff face directly west of 
the shelter, and consists of a series of curious geo- 
metric forms that appear to be of the Anasazi Rosa- 
San Juan style. 

Remarks: This rockshelter may have been utilized 
by both Anasazi Rosa Phase and Navajo Gobern- 
ador Phase populations. Cultural sediments in the 
shelter are shallow and, based on the infrequency of 
artifacts on the adjacent talus, probably contain little 
cultural material. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in a 
stable and undisturbed condition. It is located near 
the Split Rock Pueblito but is concealed. Continued 
or increased visitation at Split Rock should not result 
in adverse impact to the site. 

Artifacts: The only artifacts observed in the site 
were two Dinetah Gray sherds and a single quartzite 
hammerstone (8.2 x 4 x 3.6 cm in size). 



Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 

Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This lodge is located on the 
high mesa top 900 m east of Caiion Largo Wash, on 
the upper mesa edge 175 m north of Split Rock 
Pueblito. The site is 15 m in from the cliff edge at 
the base of a low shelf and a group of detached 
boulders and is concealed in the pifion-juniper for- 
est. The ledge is level and has a shallow dune for- 
mation over the slickrock. 

Description (Figure 25): This site consists of a sin- 
gle sweat lodge discard pile of fire-cracked rock 6 m 
in diameter and 50 cm in elevation. The burned 
sandstone blocks in the mound are 10-30 cm in size 
and the mound contains dark charcoal-laden soil. 
No evidence of the lodge itself (i.e., wood remnants) 
was observed. Two Dinetah Gray sherds were found 
in the rocks nearby and no other artifacts were 
observed. 

Remarks: This sweat lodge is one of four located in 
the Split Rock Complex. It is in a somewhat se- 
cluded area away from the habitation sites of the 
complex. 

Condition and Recommendations: The site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. It is in a secluded 
area distant from the pueblito and should not be 
impacted by continued or increased visitation to 
Split Rock. 

Artifact Materials: Two Dinetah Gray sherds were 
found among the rock adjacent to the mound. One 
is a large rim sherd without fillet embellishment. No 
other artifacts were found at the site. 



66 



Chapter 4 




67 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 




68 



Chapter 4 



Ledge 



Sherds 

) 




408-12^ 



Mound of/ Q°^ 
burned rocks 



t> 



Cliff 



/ 



Figure 25. LA 71564: Sweat lodge, Split Rock Complex. 



69 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



LA 71565 



LA 71566 



Field Number: OCA 408-13. 
Site Type: Hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Afllnity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the open 
mesa top 1.1 km east of Caiion Largo Wash and 300 
m northeast of the Split Rock Pueblito. The site is 
concealed in the pinon-juniper forest 150 m east of 
the upper cliff edge, where there is a thin sand 
mantle overlying the bedrock. There is a slight slope 
toward the west. The area is without significant 
landmarks and may be difficult to relocate. 

Description (Figure 26): This site consists of three 
hearth areas and a vessel cluster of Dinetah Gray 
sherds in an area 4 x 8 m in size. Two of the hearths 
are defined by charcoal-stained areas 1 and 2 m in 
diameter, while a possible third hearth consists of a 
cluster of fire-cracked rock in a 1 m diameter area. 
Depth of fill in the site is estimated to be 10-20 cm. 
A few burned sandstone spalls, 5-10 cm in size, 
appear in each hearth area. A cluster of 50 sherds 
from a single Dinetah Gray vessel are concentrated 
at the central hearth. An upright slab located nearby 
may be an additional hearth. 

Remarks : This is one of three Gobernador Phase 
hearths encountered on the mesa top east of Split 
Rock Pueblito. These sites are apparently outlying 
processing areas associated with the Split Rock 
Complex. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sta- 
ble and undisturbed. It is in a secluded location on 
the mesa top 300 m northeast of Split Rock Pueblito 
and should not be impacted by continued or in- 
creased visitation to the pueblito. 

Artifacts: A cluster of 50 sherds from a single 
Dinetah Gray striated jar is present in the site area. 
Rim sherds of the vessel are plain and without fillet 
embellishment. No additional artifacts were ob- 
served in the site area. 



Field Number: OCA 408-14. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge and hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the 
upper mesa 1.1 km east of Canon Largo Wash, 250 
m east-northeast from and above the Split Rock 
Pueblito. The site is concealed in the pirion-juniper 
forest of the mesa top about 150 m east of the upper 
cliff edge. Exposure is open with a slight slope to the 
west. In the site area, sandy zones alternate with 
bedrock exposures and low rock ledges. The site 
area has no significant landmark and may be difficult 
to relocate. 

Description (Figure 27): This site consists of a sin- 
gle large fire-cracked rock discard pile from a Nav- 
ajo sweat lodge and a slab-lined hearth located some 
40 m to the southeast. It is undetermined if the two 
features are associated. No artifacts were found in 
the site area. 

The sweat lodge discard pile is 5 m in diameter 
with a 30 cm high mound. Burned sandstone blocks 
in the mound are 10-30 cm in size. No evidence of 
the actual lodge was observed. It is most probable 
that this sweat lodge is an outlying feature of the Split 
Rock Pueblito Complex. 

An isolated slab-lined hearth is located about 40 
m southeast of the discard pile. Burned upright 
stone slabs form the wall of the hearth, which is 75 x 
50 cm in size. No artifacts were found in the asea of 
the hearth. 

Remarks: This sweat lodge is one of four found in 
the vicinity of the Split Rock Pueblito. Three of 
these lodges were found on the mesa top above and 
adjacent to the pueblito. The isolated hearth is one 
of a number of similar outlying features also located 
on the mesa top. No artifacts were found at this site 
but there can be little doubt that it is a component 
of the Gobernador Phase Split Rock Complex. 



70 



Chapter 4 







Upright slab 






Ash stain 

) 



N 



f o 



/ 

Co 



Ash stain 



o . ^ 

( A 408-13 



\ 



':^Dinetah vessel 
cluster 



Figure 26. LA 71565: Hearth, Split Rock Complex. 



71 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



Mound of 
burned rock 



408-14 

A 




Figure 27. LA 71566: Sweat lodge, Split Rock Complex. 



72 



Chapter 4 



LA 71567 



Field Number: OCA 408-15. 

Site Type: Gobernador Phase midden, with possible 
forkstick structures. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the 
upper mesa top 1 km east of Caiion Largo Wash and 
200 m east-southeast from and above Split Rock 
Pueblito. The site is situated in the piiion-juniper 
forest of the mesa top about 150 m east of the upper 
cliff wall. It has an open exposure with a slight slope 
to the west. Soil in the site area is sandy. A low 
bedrock ledge 25 cm high is located directly west of 
the site. 

Description (Figure 28): This site consists of a 
Gobernador Phase midden and a scatter of sand- 
stone slabs and artifacts extending over an area 34 
m north-south by 6-12 m east-west. The midden 
(Feature 1) is 6 x 4 m and has a concentration of 
artifacts and sandstone spalls in an area of charcoal- 
laden soil. Both burned and unburned sandstone 
spalls, 5-10 cm in size, and ceramics, lithics, and 
three burned bones are present. The midden is 
estimated to belO-25 cm deep. A single sandstone 
slab 50 cm in size is located west of the midden. 

The midden and diversity of artifact materials 
suggest that the location is a habitation site and may 
be an outlying component of the Split Rock Pueblito 
Complex. It is probable that a single forkstick hogan 
was present in the area. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in a 
stable undisturbed condition. It is located in a se- 
cluded area of the mesa top 200 m from Split Rock 
Pueblito and should not be impacted as a result of 
continued or increased visitation to the pueblito. 

Artifacts: A sample of 44 sherds was observed in the 
site area. Types include Dinetah Gray Smoothed 
(30 sherds), Dinetah Gray Striated (4 sherds), and 
Gobernador Polychrome (10 sherds). The Dinetah 
sherds are thin, with reduced gray paste and quartz 
temper. Most of the Gobernador material appears 
to be bowl forms. 

A total sample of 24 lithic artifacts found at this 



site are described in Table 25. Quartzite flakes pre- 
dominate; however, a biface, one piece of 
groundstone, and a projectile point are also present. 

LA 71568 



Field Number: OCA 408-16. 
Site Type: Hearths. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the upper 
east mesa of Caiion Largo 1 km east of the canyon 
floor and 400 m southeast of Split Rock Pueblito. 
The site is situated in a sandy area 150 m from the 
canyon rim and 25 m south of a bedrock outcrop on 
the mesa top. The hearths appear in a low dune-like 
environment in the piiion-juniper forest. The loca- 
tion is exposed with a slight dip (2 degrees) toward 
the west. 

Description (Figure 29): This site consists of three 
hearths and a light scatter of artifacts in an area 30 
X 15 m in size. Feature 1 is a sandstone slab-lined 
box, 50 cm square, surrounded by a light scatter of 
burned sandstone spalls. Feature 2 is a concentra- 
tion of burned sandstone blocks and slabs (5-15 cm 
in size) in an area 1.5 m in diameter. The Feature 3 
hearth, located 18 m to the south, is a dark charcoal 
stain 3 m in diameter with a few sherds and one 
burned bone. It is probable that cultural sediments 
in the site area do not exceed 25 cm in depth. 

This is one of many Gobernador Phase hearths 
found on the mesa top east of Split Rock Pueblito. 
It apparently represents an outlying processing area 
of the pueblito complex. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in a 
stable and undisturbed condition. It is concealed in 
the piiion-juniper forest of the mesa top and no 
adverse impact to the site is anticipated. 

Artifacts: Fifteen sherds were observed in the site 
area. These include Dinetah Gray Smoothed (2 
sherds), Dinetah Gray Striated (12 sherds), and 
Gobernador Polychrome (1 sherd) materials. Four 
chipped stone artifacts were found (Table 26), in- 
cluding three flakes and a pecking stone. 



73 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



Sandstone 
slab 




Figure 28. LA 71567: Midden, Split Rock Complex. 



74 



Chapter 4 



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75 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



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Figure 29. LA 71568: Hearth area, Split Rock Complex. 



76 



Chapter 4 





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LA 71569 



Field Number: OCA 408-17. 

Site Type: Hearth, with possible forkstick structure. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
ledge about 300 m southeast from Split Rock 
Pueblito. It is 50 cm from the cliff edge in a secluded 
mesa top ledge-rincon area. Ledges 2-3 m high 
extending to the open mesa top are adjacent to the 
site. The area is a sandy floored rincon in a location 
of exposed bedrock. The site is concealed in the 
piiion-juniper forest, and scrub oak and cliff rose are 
common in the area. 

Description (Figure 30): This site consists of a 
hearth and associated midden extending over an 
area 20 m east-west by 10 m north-south. A slab- 
lined hearth (75 x 50 cm in size) is present in the east 
site area. Surrounding the hearth in a 6 m area is a 
scatter of burned and unburned sandstone slabs, 
10-30 cm in size, and charcoal-laden sediments ex- 
tending to an estimated depth of 25 cm. Four large 
slabs (60-70 cm in size) arc also present. A scatter 
of Dinetah Gray and Gobernador Polychrome 
sherds appears in an area 5 m west of the hearth 
debris. No wood material is present although it is 
possible that a forkstick structure once existed here. 

Remarks: Gobernador Phase hearths are common 
on the mesa top adjacent to the Split Rock Pueblito. 
Three single hearths with little or no midden debris 
were found, suggesting a limited use. This site and 
another (LA 71567) have hearths in association with 
midden sediments that reflect either frequent reuse 
or possible habitation areas. 

Condition and Recommendations: The site is in a 
stable and undisturbed condition. It is located in a 
secluded mesa top location and should not be im- 
pacted by continued or increased visitation to Split 
Rock Pueblito. 

Artifacts: One ungulate tooth fragment was ob- 
served in addition to the ceramics. A sample of 12 
sherds occurred in a 5 m area west of the hearth. 



77 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



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A 408-17 



Hearth 



Sandstone slab 



Figure 30. LA 71569: Hearth and possible forkstick structure, Split Rock Complex. 



78 



Chapter 4 



Two or three vessels are represented by 8 sherds of 
a Gobernador Polychrome bowl, 1 Dinetah Gray 
Smoothed sherd, and 3 Dinetah Gray Striated 
sherds. No lithics were found. 



LA 71570 

Field Number: OCA 408-18. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge, hearth area, and midden. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top ledge directly east and 70 m from Split Rock 
PuebHto. Access from the elevated ledge of Split 
Rock to the upper mesa top is gained through a 
crack behind a detached boulder at the upper cliff 
edge. The site is situated on a mesa top ledge in a 
rincon 20 m from the upper cliff edge. This low 
ledge is 2 m high and is above and east of the site. 
The structures are placed on a low dune in the 
rincon, and slickrock exposures appear adjacent to 
the site along the cliff edge. The site has a western 
exposure with a slight west slope. It is in a concealed 
position in the pinon-juniper forest of the mesa top. 

Description (Figure 31): The site includes a sweat 
lodge discard pile, midden area, and possible 
forkstick structure in an area 45 m east-west by 18 m 
north-south. This should be recognized as a mesa 
top component of the adjacent Split Rock Pueblito. 
Indeed, the site is on the ledge directly above and 
70 m from the pueblito. 

The sweat lodge is defined by a large 50 cm high 
mound of burned sandstone blocks (elements 5-20 
cm in size) in an area 8 m in diameter. This is the 
largest sweat lodge discard pile in the group of four 
found in the Split Rock Complex. The mound is cut 
by an arroyo and much of the burned stone is scat- 
tered down the wash. No evidence of the actual 
lodge was found. 

Ten meters west of the discard mound is a midden 
(Feature 2) defined by a concentration of artifacts 



and dark charcoal-laden soil in an area 6 x 6 m in 
size. The estimated depth of the midden is 25 cm. 
Numerous burned sandstone spalls appear in the 
midden, and artifact density is moderate. A single 
bone was found in the area. 

Adjacent and west of the midden is a cluster of 
unburned sandstone slabs and blocks (10-20 cm in 
size) in a roughly circular pattern 2.5 m in diameter. 
These elements may be the basal stones of a forkstick 
structure. There is one vertical slab in the area that 
is a possible hearth or slab box feature. No wood 
remnants are present here or elsewhere in the site. 

A scatter of artifacts extends down the slope west 
of Feature 3 in an area 15 m east-west by 8 m 
north-south. Two possible hearths also appear on 
the mesa ledge to the south. 

Remarks: This site is clearly a component of the 
Split Rock Pueblito Complex located some 70 m to 
the west and on the cliff bench below. The sweat 
lodge at this site is the largest of the four found in 
the Split Rock survey area. The midden may have 
been associated with a forkstick habitation area, but 
no evidence of the structure remains. 

Condition and Recommendations: The sweat lodge 
discard mound is substantially eroded, but else- 
where the site is stable and undisturbed. The site is 
located directly above Split Rock Pueblito and is 
subject to occasional visitation. The structural fea- 
tures at the site should not be impacted by continued 
visitation but the site should be included in the pro- 
posed surface collection of artifacts. 

Artifacts: A cluster of 15 sherds, some lithics, and 5 
bone items are present in the midden area and oc- 
casional lithics appear scattered to the west of Fea- 
ture 3. The sherds include 13 of Dinetah Gray and 
2 of Tewa Red. The Tewa sherds appear to be 
sections of a large jar with a solid red slip neck area. 
The paste is buff and the temper is luffa. 

A total of 10 lilhic artifacts was observed in the 
site area (Tabic 27). Most are flakes or retouched 
Hakes of chalcedony. Two hammerstones and a 
pecking stone (all of quartzitc) are also present. 



79 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



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Chapter 4 



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LA 71571 



Field Number: OCA 408-19. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge 

Cultural-Temporal Arfinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18lh century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on an 
eroded benchland below and some 150 m northwest 
of Split Rock Pueblito and is visible from the 
pueblito. It is situated on a small flat near the head 
of a drainage some 50 m west of the mesa cliff face. 
Erosional channels expose a badland-like clay sub- 
strate and boulders from the lower cliff talus lie 
scattered about. The site has a western exposure 
with a slight west slope of 2-4 degrees. Scattered 
pihon-juniper, sage, and rabbitbrush appear in the 
vicinity. 

Description (Figure 32): This site represents one of 
four sweat lodges found in proximity to Split Rock 
Pueblito. It consists of two fire-cracked rock discard 
piles, a hearth, and the remnants of a sweat lodge, 
all within an area 16 m north-south by 7 m cast-west. 
Two discard piles of burned sandstone, one 3 m 
in diameter, the other 4 m in diameter, and both 25 
cm high, are present. Adjacent to the south pile is a 
hearth defined by a 3 m area of charcoal- laden soil 
and small fire-cracked rock bits (5 cm and less in 
size). The sweat lodge is defined by a 3 m circular 
scatter of juniper slats near which are a few un- 
burned sandstone slabs. These slabs are probable 
basal copings for the structure. This is the only sweat 
lodge in the Split Rock group where wood slats of 
the lodge arc preserved. This may be due to differ- 
ential preservation or perhaps the lodge is of more 
recent construction. Since no artifacts were found 
in the site, temporal affiliation remains in question. 

Condition and Reconiniendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. It is located out- 
side the immediate impact zone of Split Rock 
Pueblito and as such should remain undisturbed. 



81 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 




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82 



Chapter 4 



LA 71599 



Field Number: OCA 408-27. 



LA 71820 



Field Number: OCA 408-53. 



Site Type: Cache of weaving-basketry tools. 



Site Type: Rock art panel 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 



Location-Situation: This site is located in a pro- 
tected crevice at the cliff base 100 m north and above 
the Split Rock Pueblito. The crevice is situated in 
back of a detached boulder from the cliff face, and 
is a narrow crack under an overhanging rockshelter. 

Description (Figure 33): This site consists of a 
cache of wooden artifacts in a packrat midden. The 
artifacts were found in the packrat midden under a 
stone. There is no evidence of structures or other 
features in the crevice area, though additional arti- 
facts may be buried in the packrat nest. 
Condition and Recommendations: This cache was 
collected and submitted to the Maxwell Museum of 
Anthropology for curation. 

Artifacts: Eight wooden artifacts were found in the 
cache including two wood disks (Plate 5) and six cut 
rods. Both disks are cut cottonwood while the rods 
are unidentified hardwoods. One disk is perforated 
and is 9.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick. The central 
perforation is 50 mm in diameter. One face of the 
disk has a whorl in a thin black painted design. The 
other disk is undccorated and without a perforation. 
It is 9.5 cm in diameter and 75 mm thick. Six stick 
rods about 1 cm in diameter and many fragments 
were also found. One is 1 m long and has a polished 
and pointed end that fits into the perforated disk. 
Another rod fragment has a flat spatulate end, while 
the third has a pointed polished tip. None of the 
rods are painted. 

The disk and rod are an apparent spinning spindle 
(Amsden 1934:36) of incomplete manufacture. The 
pointed and spatulate tip rods may be basketry tools. 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the talus 
of the upper eastern wall of Cafion Largo 800 km 
east of the canyon fioor. The panel is on the talus of 
the lower cliff ledge 50 m south from Split Rock 
Pueblito. It is pecked into the south face of a large 
boulder on the lower talus some 10 m below the cliff 
face. The talus is a boulder-strewn slope with a west 
dip of 20-30 degrees. The site is concealed in the 
piiion-juniper forest of the talus slope. 

Description (Figure 34): This site consists of a sin- 
gle petroglyph panel on the south face of a large 
boulder. The panel includes three subjects in an 
area 3.6 x 1 m in size. The forms are pecked into the 
sandstone and are rather faint. One figure is a 
stepped "lightening rod" or "serpent-arrow" upon 
which is placed three double recurved bow motifs. 
Another figure is a circular shield 65 cm in diameter 
with three single recurved bow forms and a single 
arrow. The other form is too faint to discern but it 
may be a humanoid, perhaps holding the shield. 

Remarks: This rock art panel is of obvious Dinetah 
style and is no doubt associated with the Split Rock 
Pueblito Complex. This is the only example of Nav- 
ajo rock art found in the Split Rock Survey area. The 
recurved bows, shield form, and lightening motifs 
are common elements of the Dinetah rock art style. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were found in the site area. 



83 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 



Boulders 




A 



Locus of cache 



Figure 33. LA 71599: Cache, Split Rock Complex. 



84 




Plates. LA 71599: Cottonwood weaving tools, Split Rock Complex. 



85 



Split Rock Pueblito Complex 





Chapter 4 



Split Rock Complex 
Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1: Two stock feeders were found on the 
bench directly below the upper cliff talus approxi- 
mately 200 m south of Split Rock Pueblito. One is a 
log 2.5 m long with an ax-cut V-shaped trough. 
Another feeder located 20 m to the southwest is 
constructed of milled lumber. It is 3 m long and is 
made of boards held with wire, rebar, and pipe. 

lO No. 2: This is a single Piedra Gray sherd found 
on the talus slope among large boulders. The loca- 
tion is 150 m south of Split Rock Pueblito. 

lO No. 3: An historical camp site is located on the 



bench directly below and 25 m west of the Split Rock 
Pueblito Site. The camp is located in an area adja- 
cent to a large boulder and on the south rim of an 
eroded area. One hearth ring, a hearth ash stain, 
and a tent peg were observed. Other hearths are 
scattered about the area below Split Rock but his- 
torical artifacts are concentrated in this area. Arti- 
facts include 12 milk cans, 1 Wakefield coffee can, 1 
Clorox bottle, 1 KC Baking Powder can, Shain apple 
juice cans, and a wildroot cream oil bottle dated 
1958. This location is a probable sheep camp of 
Navajo or Hispanic affinity. Two or three other 
hearths below Split Rock may be related to visitation 
at the site. Also, three Rosa Gray sherds were found 
near the large boulder below Split Rock Pueblito. 



87 



Chapter 5 

Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



The Tapacito study area is a 60-acre tract located 
on the high eastern bench and upper canyon rim of 
Canon Largo directly north of the confluence of 
Tapacito and Largo Canyons (Figure 35; also see 
Figure 18). The tract is a roughly triangular-shaped 
area bounded on the southwest by the upper edge of 
a 400 ft high cliff wall which rises from the canyon 
floor. Most of the survey area is located on a wide, 
open bench of the upper eastern canyonland. 
Slickrock exposures and low ledges occur along the 
mesa rim. A double-stepped cliff and narrow bench 
extend to the mesa top in the east. Elevation ranges 
from 6400 ft at the cliff edge to 6600 ft on the canyon 
rim-mesa top. 

The vegetative community in the study area con- 
sists of open sage-grasslands with scattered stands 
of piiion-juniper. Occasional cactus and forb thick- 
ets appear along the ledges and bench slopes. 

Several slickrock tinajas are located in a drainage 
about 150 m west of the pueblito. These tanks are 
quite deep and contained, even in the 1989 spring 
season of drought, hundreds of gallons of water. 
They were clearly the source of domestic water for 
the Tapacito occupants and might also have been 
used by the nearby Split Rock occupants. 

Tapacito Pueblito 

LA 2298 

Field Number: OCA 408-25. 

Site Name: Tapacito Pueblito. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal AfTmity: Navajo and probable 
Pueblo refugee; Gobernador Phase, early 18th cen- 
tury. 

Tree-Ring Dates: Two periods of construction are 
indicated, i.e., 1690 and 1694. This site is the earliest 
dated pueblito in the Dinetah District. 



Previous References: 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map 
(1975). 

Correll and Brugge (1959). Navajo Land Claims 
Site E-CL-UL-R. 

Hadlock (1959). SJAS Site RA 14. 

Hall and Stallings (1951). 

Powers and Johnson (1987). 

Wilson and Warren (1974). 

Location-Situation: Tapacito Pueblito is located on 
a high eastern bench of Caiion Largo 200 m east 
from and about 80 m above, but not visible from, the 
canyon floor. The site is situated on an open sage- 
covered bench with slickrock exposures along the 
canyon rim some 30 m distant. The site is in an open 
and nonfortified position, but the pueblito is the 
archetype of the "casa fuerte" or "strong house" 
(Plate 6). Large tinajas occur in the nearby drainage 
near the cliff edge 150 m to the west. Two of these 
slickrock tanks are quite deep and contained, even 
in the dry season, hundreds of gallons of water. They 
were the water source for the Tapacito Pueblito 
occupation and may have been a principle factor in 
the selection of this location. 

Description (Figure 36): The Tapacito Pueblito 
Complex consists of a seven room pueblito, three 
middens, six probable forkstick structures, four 
hearths and a large depression, all within an area 60 
X 50 m in si/c (Table 28). An additional midden 
(Midden 4) is located 60 m lo the west and may be 
associated with another fork.slick structure. Inven- 
tory in the ()0 acres surrounding the pueblito identi- 
fied three associated sweat lodges and one hearth, 
but no additional habitation features. 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



This pueblito is a the classic example of the "casa 
fucrte" or "strong house" as described by the Span- 
ish (Reeve 1957:45; Brugge 1980:8-9). Indeed, the 
original massive four-room block (to which three 
additional rooms were later appended) has the ap- 
pearance of a scaled-down European-style fort. En- 
trance into the house is from the roof. The walls are 
massive (75 cm to 1 m thick and 2.2 m high) and a 
second-story parapet surrounds the roof. This wall 
is simple masonry, 25 cm thick, and stands 50 cm 
above the roof. 



Based on the rubble surrounding the house, a 
height of 1-1.5 m for the original parapet is esti- 
mated. There is no evidence to suggest that the 
upper story was roofed (Figure 37). 

Most of the massive walls, 8 x 9 m, the rooms, and 
four roofs are intact. The masonry is massive core- 
veneer construction with angular sandstone blocks 
20-40 cm in size. This hard, angular, and vesicular 
material is found in the bedrock ledges of the im- 
mediate area. The interior and parapet walls are 
simple masonry, one stone wide, and 30 cm thick. 







Figure 35. Schematic map of the Tapacito Complex. 



90 



Chapter 5 




91 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 









t? 



92 



Chapter 5 



Table 28. Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex (LA 2298) 
Size: ca 60 x 50 m 

• Seven-room pueblito consisting of a central massive block of four rooms with a second story parapet, 
two appended masonry rooms on the east, and one masonry-based structure on the south. 

• Rectangular masonry-based log structure (Feature 2). 

• Five masonry-based forkstick hogans (Features 4, 8, 9, and 10). 

• One masonry-based, possible cribbed log hogan (Feature 4). 

• Three hearth areas (Feature 3, 6, 7, and 12). 

• Four middens (Middens 1, 2, 3, and 4). 

• Large depression (possible pit structure). 

Greater complex 

Size: 400 x400 m 

• Three sweat lodge sites (LA 71573, LA 71575, and LA 71598). 

• One hearth-oven (LA 71572). 

• Very extensive slickrock tinajas are present in a drainage near the east cliff of Canon Largo about 150 m 
west of the pueblito. They were obviously the principle source of water supply for the Tapacito 
occupation. 

Anasazi site 

• Rosa Phase habitation site (LA 71574). 



Rooms 1 and 2, appended to the south end of the 
main roomblock, have collapsed into a rubble 
mound 1 m high. The rooms were constructed of 
soft white sandstone slabs 20-40 cm in size. This 
white tabular material is not found in the immediate 
site area. Room 7, appended to the west side of the 
roomblock, is defined by a low masonry foundation. 
There is little rubble here and the original elevation 
of the walls probably did not exceed 50 cm to 1 m. 
This room was either incomplete or an unroofed 
enclosure. 

There are no exterior doorways in the massive 
four-room structure and entry was through roof top 
hatchways. There are two two-room suites with 
north-south access between Rooms 3 and 4 and 
between Rooms 5 and 6. There is no east-west access 
in the house, although there are two small windows 
between Rooms 3 and 5. 

A firestain on the cast walls of Rooms 5 and 6 and 
burned roof beams in these rooms indicate that part 
of the house was destroyed by fire. Fill in the rooms 



is estimated to be 50 cm to 1 m deep. Hooded 
fireplaces are present in Rooms 4 and 5. A wood 
pole rack was placed across the north end of Room 
4. The interior walls were plastered with adobe. 
Traces of white plaster were observed by previous 
recorders. 

Additional Associated Features 

A series of features located directly west and 
northwest of the pueblito include six forkstick or 
masonry-based log structures, four hearths, and a 
rather large depression. No wood from the log con- 
structions remains. 



This 



Feature 2 

a roughly rectangular alignment of sand- 



stone blocks 3 x 2 m in si/e. It appears to be a small 
masonry-based room thai may have been open to the 
.south. Unburned sandslt)nc blocks 20-30 cm long 
were used in the foundation. The superstructure 
was no doubt made of log and brush. 



93 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



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94 



Chapter 5 



Feature 3 

This appears to be a hearth with a concentration 
of burned sandstone spalls and 10-20 cm slabs in a 2 
m area. Charcoal-stained soil, two 30-40 cm sand- 
stone blocks, and a few sherds are also present. 

Feature 4 

This feature is a circular masonry-based hogan 
3 m in diameter with a masonry base constructed of 
sandstone blocks 20-30 cm in size and two to three 
courses high. There appears to be a rock-lined en- 
tryway extending to the south. The superstructure 
may have been cribbed log. 

Feature 5 
This feature is a 4 m diameter circular alignment 
of scattered 20-30 cm sandstone slabs. These slabs 
were probably basal stones for a forkstick hogan. 

Feature 6 

This feature is a firebox hearth, consisting of fire- 
burned 20-30 cm sandstone blocks in a 75 x 50 cm 
rectangular shape. 

Feature 7 
This feature is a concentration of burned sand- 
stone blocks (20-30 cm in size). The area has been 
potted and the slabs are scattered in a 3 m area. The 
feature is either a hearth or a possible burned 
forkstick hogan. 

Features8,9, 10,andll 

These are roughly circular, somewhat scattered 
alignments of unburned, 20-30 cm blocks, from ho- 
gans about 3 m in diameter. The estimated maxi- 
mum depth of fill in these units is 25 cm. 

Feature 12 

This feature is a hearth located 25 m northeast of 
the pueblito. Charcoal-stained sediments with an 
estimated depth of 20 cm are present as is a concen- 
tration of burned sandstone slabs in a 2 m area. 

Feature 13 

This feature is a rather large, but shallow, 8 x 6 m 
depression, that occurs on the bench top about 15 m 
northeast of the pueblito. It fosters robust grasses 
in contrast to the adjacent area of sage. A few un- 
burned sandstone blocks (20-40 cm) arc scattered 
along the west side of the depression. A single 



pothole is in the depression. This feature may be a 
borrow pit or perhaps a subterranean pit structure. 

Middens 

There are four middens with an estimated 47.5 cm 
of fill located in proximity to the pueblito. Each 
midden is somewhat distinctive. Midden 1, located 
directly adjacent to the house, has rather high arti- 
fact densities, but has a low incidence of burned 
bone and burned sandstone, and is probably both a 
house midden and hearth-culinary dump. Midden 
2, located 22 m from the pueblito, maybe considered 
the house midden with a rather low artifact density 
and high frequencies of burned bone and burned 
sandstone spalls. Midden 3, the smallest, is located 
near the outlying forkstick structures and contained 
three projectile points. Midden 4, located some 
60 m from the pueblito, consists largely of charcoal- 
stained sand with very low artifact densities. Mid- 
dens 3 and 4 are apparently outlying middens 
associated with adjacent forkstick occupations. 

Midden 1 

The midden is located southwest of and adjacent 
to the pueblito. It covers a low ledge 14 x 15 m in size. 
It is a blanket of dark charcoal-laden soil 10-20 cm 
in depth with the highest artifact densities observed 
at the site. In contrast, only moderate quantities of 
burned bone and burned sandstone spalls are pres- 
ent. The midden is estimated to contain 32 cubic 
meters of fill. Five pieces of coal clinker were found, 
indicating that coal was burned at the site and was 
perhaps used in the manufacture of metal tools. 
Also, two faceted hematite nodules (which look like 
musket balls) were found in the Midden 1 area, 
along with one iron fragment. 

Midden 2 
Midden 2 is located 22 m southeast of the pueblito 
below a low rock ledge in a 10 x 5 m area. It has an 
estimated depth of 10-20 cm (7.5 cubic meters of 
trash fill estimated). The midden contains dark char- 
coal-laden sediments with an abundance of burned 
bone and burned sandstone spalls ( 5 cm in size). 
Occasional burned sandstone slabs (20-30 cm) are 
also present. Midden 2 has a lower artifact density 
than Midden 1, but a much higher incidence of 
burned bone and burned sandstone. Three faceted 
hematite nodules were also found in this midden. 



95 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



Midden 3 

This midden is a small, 5 m diameter, 10 cm deep 
deposit located 25 m east of the pueblito and adja- 
cent to the apparent masonry-based forkstick struc- 
ture. The midden is dark sand with no burned spalls. 
One burned bone and three projectile points were 
found (see Figure 6 for examples of projectile points 
from this and other sites). 

Midden 4 

Midden 4 is located 65 m northeast of the pueblito 
and is east of the road. It is rather far from the 
pueblito and may be associated with an outlying 
forkstick with no visible remnants. This midden is 6 
X 6 m in size and has an estimated 10-20 cm depth 
(5.4 cubic meters of estimated fill). The midden 
contains dark charcoal-laden sand, artifact density 
is low, and only a few burned sandstone spalls are 
present. 

Artifacts: Ceramic samples were examined from 
the four middens at Tapacito. A total of 244 sherds 
were identified and are listed in Table 29. A previ- 
ous ceramic collection of 108 sherds documented by 
Wilson and Warren (1972:15) revealed a similar 
ware-type inventory. The Tapacito ceramic assem- 
blage is typically dominated by Dinetah Gray (82% 
of the sample) and Gobernador Yellow (65% of the 
decorated collection). Minor intrusive wares at the 
site include Rio Grande Glazewares, Hopi Yellow, 
Ocate Micaeous, and Acoma. 

The rather atypical presence of Rio Grande 
Glazeware, absent at most eighteenth century 
pucblitos, is a refiection of Tapacito's early con- 
struction in the late seventeenth century. Rio 
Grande Glazeware (apparent Glaze F vessels) is 
tempered with basalt, scoria, rhyolitic tuff, and sand- 
stone. The basalt-tempered material is probably 
from the Zia area, the scoria and rhyolitic tuff is from 
the Cochiti area, and the sandstone is perhaps from 
Pecos. 

The micaceous Ocate material [five sherds in this 
study and three sherds noted by Wilson and Warren 
(1972)] also indicates contact with the Plains, and 
possibly the Pecos District. This material is a thin- 
walled brownware with striated exterior surfaces, it 
is tempered with quartz mica schist, and is of appar- 
ent Plains Apache manufacture (Gunnerson 1969, 
1971:9). 



Only traces of Acoma ceramic material were 
found in the 1989-1990 inventory. Wilson and War- 
ren (1972:16) identify the Acoma material from 
Tapacito as Hawikuh Glaze Polychrome; however, 
no glaze paint was seen on the two sherds found in 
this survey. One sherd of unidentified Hopi Yellow 
is also present in the collection. 

It is significant that no Pucbloan matte paint ves- 
sels have been identified from Tapacito. The site 
may have been occupied prior to the development 
of the matte paint technique. It is interesting to note 
that the Gobernador Yellow matte paint style was 
well developed in the late seventeenth century, dur- 
ing an era when Glazeware industries were extant in 
most Puebloan provinces. 

Lithic samples were defined in three of the four 
middens at the Tapacito complex, as listed in Tables 
30-32. A total of 75 artifacts were recorded, includ- 
ing one mano, three metates, six projectile points, 
and one shaft straightner (also see previous discus- 
sion on possible hematite musket balls). The vast 
majority of the lithics were petrified wood, chalce- 
dony, quartzite, chert, and obsidian flakes. 

LA 71572 

Field Number: OCA 408-21. 

Site Type: Hearth-oven. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the high 
eastern bench of Canon Largo approximately 300 m 
northwest of Tapacito Pueblito. The site is on a low 
sandy ridge about 100 m east of the cliff edge. This 
location is exposed and bare, in an open pinon-juni- 
per forest with an understory of grass and scattered 
sage and a south slope of 5-10 degrees. 

Description (Figure 38): LA 71572 consists of a 
scatter of burned and unburned sandstone slabs and 
blocks and a few sherds in an area 8 m east-west by 
6 m north-south. Sandstone elements 10-30 cm in 
size are concentrated in a 3 m diameter epicenter. 
About half of the stones are burned. A scatter of 
seven sherds from a single Gobernador Polychrome 
vessel appear adjacent to the rock concentration. 



96 



Chapter 5 



Table 29. Tapacito Pueblito (LA 2298) ( 


:eramic frequencies and miscellaneous material 












Total 


Ceramic ware-type 


Midden 


1 Midden 2 


Midden 3 


Midden 4 


Sample 


Dinetah Gray 












Smoothed 


81 


28 


30 


10 


149 


Striated 


30 


13 


2 


7 


52 


Gobernador Polychrome 


12 


12 


8 


1 


33 


Frances Polychrome 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 


Rio Grande Glazeware 












Scoria tempered 


- 


1 


. 




1 


Sandstone 


1 


. 


. 


- 


1 


Basalt 


1 


. 






1 


Rhyolitic Tuffa 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


Hopi Yellow 












Unidentified 


1 


. 


- 




1 


Acoma 












Cream-on-white 


2 


. 


- 


- 


2 


Ocate Micaceous 












Striated 


5 


. 


. 


. 


5 


Unidentified 












Red paste-quartz temper 


- 


2 


- 


- 


2 


Total Ceramics 


136 


57 


40 


18 


251 


Other Artifact Types 












Bone fragments 


8 


16 


1 


4 


29 


Clinker "slag" 


5 


- 


- 


- 


5 


Faceted hematite (nodules) 


2 


4 


- 


- 


6 


Iron fragment 


1 


- 






1 



Condition and Recommendations: This site is sta- 
ble and undisturbed. No management recommen- 
dations are necessary. 

Artifacts: Seven sherds from a single Gobernador 
Polychrome vessel were found. No other artifacts 
are present. 

LA 71573 

Field Number: OCA 408-22. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the high 
eastern bench of Cafion Largo approximately 200 m 
northwest of Tapacito Pueblito and 30 m from the 
cliff edge. The lodge is located in a bench-ledge 
rincon adjacent to and below a low ledge talus of 
broken bedrock. The lodge is on an open level sandy 
area adjacent to a slickrock exposure. The rincon is 
open and exposed, but the lodge is somewhat se- 
cluded from the pueblito by its distance and piiion- 
junipcr screen. 

Description (Figure 39): This sweat lodge is defined 
by an extensive fire-cracked rock discard mound, an 
ash stain, and the wood sial remnants of a lodge 
structure, all within an area 10 x 12 m in size. 



97 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 





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Chapter 5 



The discard mound is extensive, measuring 10 x 
10 m with a 75 cm height, indicating repeated and 
long-term use. The mound is composed of burned 
sandstone blocks 5-20 cm in size. A hearth area of 
charcoal-stained earth, 2 m in diameter, is adjacent 
to and north of the mound. A few juniper slats are 
the apparent remnants of the lodge structure. No 
artifacts were observed. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sta- 
ble and undisturbed. No further management is 
necessary. 



LA 71574 



Field Number: OCA 408-23. 

Site Type: Anasazi habitation. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Rosa-Piedra Phase, 
BMIII-PI. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on a high 
eastern bench of Caiion Largo, approximately 175 m 




Scatter limits 



Figure 38. LA 71572: Hearth-oven, Tapacito Complex. 



101 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



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mound 



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Figure 39. LA 71573: Sweat lodge, Tapacito Complex. 



102 



Chapter 5 



east-southeast of the Tapacito PuebHto and 100 m 
from the high cHff edge of the bench. The site is on 
the crest and upper slopes of an east-west trending 
ridge, in an eroded sandy loam divide extending 
from the upper talus across the bench top. The 
location is open and exposed with slopes of 5-10 
degrees toward the north, south, and west. The area 
is in an open pinon-juniper forest with a grass-sage 
understory. The ground surface is bare. Visibility 
from the location is extensive, especially into Cibola 
Canyon. 

Description (Figure 40): Cultural debris is scat- 
tered over an area 50 m north-south by 40 m east- 
west. The site consists of a variety of features 
including hearths, middens, and rock alignments. It 
is probable that jacal or pit structures are present. 

One midden (Feature 1) contains a dense concen- 
tration of cultural debris in a 10 x 15 m area. Artifact 
density is high and some small (5 cm ) fire-cracked 
rocks (sandstone and quartzite cobbles) are present. 
An ash stain (Feature 2) 3 m in diameter is located 
adjacent to the midden. Two areas (3-4 m in diam- 
eter) of scattered sandstone slabs (Features 3 and 4) 
are possible structural remnants. A small hearth 
stain 1 m in diameter (Feature 5), is present on the 
ridge crest and two hearth-midden areas (Features 
6 and 7) are on the north slope of the ridge, where 
burned sandstone slabs appear with artifact concen- 
trations in 4 m areas. 

A light scatter of artifacts occurs throughout the 
site. Both ceramics (estimated 250 items) and lithics 
(estimated 1500 items) are common. This site is 
probably a Rosa-Piedra Phase habitation site. Con- 
siderable midden and hearth debris are present and 
fill is an estimated depth of 50 cm deep. Buried jacal 
structures are probably at the site. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sub- 
ject to minor erosion but otherwise is in a stable and 
undisturbed condition. No management recom- 
mendations are offered. 

Artifacts: Ceramic materials observed include: 
Plain Gray (thick, carbonaceous, Picdra-likc) = 51 
sherds; Brown Plain (Rosa Brown) = 1 sherd; Gray 
Basket Impressed = 2 sherds; Gray Neckbandcd 
(wide, fiat bands) = 1 sherd; CJray Striated (highly 
scored) = 5 sherds; Rosa Black-on-white = 1 sherd; 
and unidentified whiteware = 1 sherd. 



A sample of 25 lithics was obtained from a 2 x 3 m 
area of Feature 1 (Table 33). Almost all are quartz- 
ite flakes, except for several pieces of angular debris 
and a mano and metate. 

LA 71575 

Field Number: OCA 408-24. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the high 
eastern bench of Canon Largo approximately 125 m 
east of Tapacito Pueblito and 150 m east of the 
bench's edge. It is 10 m west of the Tapacito bench 
roadway. The pueblito is visible from the site at a 
274 degree orientation. The lodge is located in an 
open and exposed area of the piiion-juniper forest 
adjacent to a small arroyo. This is a sandy area, with 
a slight 1-2 degree slope to the northwest. 

Description (Figure 41): This site consists of a 
rather large sweat lodge rock discard mound, mea- 
suring 8 x 5 m in size and 50 cm in height, composed 
of burned sandstone blocks 10-30 cm in size. Char- 
coal-stained soil occurs on the east side of the 
mound. No evidence of a large structure was ob- 
served, and no artifacts were found. 

Condition and Recommendations: This mound has 
been looted by an enterprising but uneducated van- 
dal. Much of the mound was leveled and the stones 
stacked along the edges. 

LA 71598 

Field Number: OCA 408-26. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This lodge is located on the 
upper eastern bench of Canon Largo 400 m east of 
the canyon and 200 m east of the Tapacito Pueblito. 
The site is on an upper bench elevated some 100 ft 



103 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 




104 



Chapter 5 



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Tapacito Pueblito Complex 




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106 



Chapter 5 



above the pueblito, and is visible from the site at a 
255 degree orientation. This lodge is in a rather 
secluded area, about 10 m west of the talus boulders, 
on a slight western slope, in an open pinon-juniper 
forest with a grass and sage understory. 

Description (Figure 42): This site consists of a sweat 
lodge discard pile, a charcoal-stained area, a cluster 
of sherds from a single vessel, and a nearby hearth, 
all within a 20 m north-south by 5 m east-west area. 
No evidence of the wood lodge remains. The dis- 
card pile is a 3 m diameter mound of burned sand- 
stone blocks (10-20 cm size) with a 50 cm elevation. 
Adjacent to the mound is a 2 m hearth of dark 
charcoal-laden sand. A vessel cluster of 40 Dinetah 
Plain Smoothed sherds occurs 3 m west of the dis- 
card mound and 3 m further west is a sandstone disk 
pot lid. A small hearth defined by a 1 m scatter of 
burned sandstone slabs (10-20 cm in size) is 14 m 
south of the lodge. 

Condition and Recommendations: This stable and 
undisturbed site is secluded and distant from the 
pueblito and should not be impacted by continued 



or increased visitation to the Tapacito Pueblito. 

Artifacts: Forty sherds of a single Dinetah Plain 
Smoothed vessel were found in a 3 m area south of 
the lodge. The vessel is rather thick (6 mm) and has 
a brown friable paste. A sandstone disk "pot lid" 
was 3 m south of the vessel cluster. It is a shaped 
disk, 8 cm in diameter, and is the apparent lid for the 
nearby vessel cluster. 

Tapacito Complex 

Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1: A burned area 50 cm in length was 
found in an arroyo cut 1.5 m below the surface at the 
base of a talus slope. The lense is 5-10 cm thick and 
a burned sandstone slab is at the base. This is an 
apparent hearth probably of Anasazi affiliation. No 
artifacts were found in the section. 

lO No. 2: This lO is a large Jemez obsidian fiake, 
5.5 cm in length. It is unifacially retouched, and was 
found on a sandy flat 25 m from the cliff edge. 



107 



Tapacito Pueblito Complex 



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108 



Chapter 6 

Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



The Shaft House study area is a 30-acre tract in 
the Cuervo Canyon tributary of Canon Largo about 
20 miles southeast of the San Juan River and about 
3 miles east of the Cuervo-Canon Largo confluence 
(Figures 43 and 44). The study area includes the 
entire top of the mesa point, ledges of the canyon 
rim, and the base of the upper cliff. The boundaries 
on the east and west are the high upper cliffs of the 
canyon walls. The south boundaries include the 
Shaft House area at the cliff base and upper talus 
slope. The north boundary crosses the mesa in a 
location without significant landmarks. The site is 
located on a high mesa point between two northern 
tributaries of Cuervo Canyon. 

Elevations in the study area range from 6300 ft on 
the talus below Shaft House to 6543 ft on the mesa 
point above. A pinon-juniper forest mantles the 
mesa top and scattered pihon and juniper appear 
along the cliff edges and the talus slopes. Other 
vegetation observed in the study area includes 
ephedra, squawbush, ground cholla, prickly pear, 
narrow and wide leaf yucca, echinocereus and 
mammalaria cactus, snakeweed, and grasses. 
Springs and slickrock catchments appear in the ad- 
jacent canyon floor, with growths of Cottonwood and 
willow. Domestic water supplies for the pueblito 
occupation may have been obtained from the canyon 
floor about 200 m distant. 

The Shaft House Pueblito is located on a narrow 
ledge below the high upper north cliff of Cuervo 
Canyon. High cliffs and steep boulder-strewn 
slopes exist above and below the pueblito. The lo- 
cation is clearly fortified. Most of the associated 
sites were found on the adjacent mesa top, although 
at least one sweat lodge is on a bench below the 
pueblito. It is probable that other outlying compo- 
nents of the complex exist nearby but outside of the 
study area. One site was recorded outside of the 
study area on a bench near the canyon Hoor below 
Shaft House. Tabic 34 lists sites in the complex. 



Shaft House 

LA 5660 (also LA 10826 

and LA 13271) 

Field Number: OCA 408-31. 
Site Name: Shaft House. 
Site Type: Pueblito. 

Previous References: 

BLM site form and map, NM-30-01-015 (1974). 

BLM stabilization monitoring (1981). 

Hadlock (1959). SJAS Site Crow Canyon No. 5 
and RA-11. 

Haskell (1975:89-90). 

NPS stabilization (1973). 

Peckham(1972). Site LA 10826. 

Powers and Johnson (1987:48-49). 

Van Valkenburg (1947). 

Location-Situation: The Shaft House Pueblito 
(Plate 7) is located on a high northern ledge of 
Cuervo Canyon approximately 3 km east of the 
Cuervo-Canon Largo conOuence. Its position on 
this elevated, narrow ledge is formidable and is 
clearly fortified. High cliffs and steep boulder- 
strewn slopes extend below the ledge, dropping 100 
m to the canyon fioor. A cliff, 30 m high, backs the 
ledge and rises up to the canyon rim. Access to the 
ledge is restricted to one area of difficult ascent from 
the canyon Hoor and to a broken steep trail from the 
canyon rim. 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



Visibility from the site extends down the canyon 
to the southwest and to the upper east and south 
canyon rims, but the Cuervo-Largo confluence is 
closed by high canyon walls. The ledge faces south 
and structures are placed on ledge shelves of vari- 
able elevation, at the cliff base, and adjacent to large 
cliff-side boulders. This high cliff ledge fosters 
growths of pifion, juniper, sage, squawbush, 
ephedra, ground cholla, prickly pear, and yucca. In 
the slickrock of the shaded canyon floor there are a 
spring and numerous bedrock tinajas that support 
growths of Cottonwood and willow. 

Description (Figure 45): The structural features 
that comprise Shaft House are placed on various 
ledges between two high cliffs of the upper north 



canyon wall. The structures are scattered along this 
broken shelf for a distance of 140 m east-west by a 
maximum of 40 m north-south. The shaft/tower that 
leads to the elevated cliff house is the most distinc- 
tive feature in the complex (Plate 8). The high de- 
fensive wall blocking the east ledge is also a massive 
construction of notable character. Additional fea- 
tures include five free-standing masonry rooms, 
three cliff-backed rooms, two rooms under over- 
hangs, eight storage bins, two wall segments perpen- 
dicular to the cliff base, and three middens. A light 
scatter of artifacts appears throughout the site but 
midden sediments are infrequent, suggesting that 
the site occupation was relatively short-lived. The 
site may have been a fortified retreat during times of 
hostility. 




SHAFT HOUSE 



Survey boundary 

Site 

Isolated occurrence 



N 



Figure 43. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Shaft House Complex. 



110 



Chapter 6 




Shaft House Comple 

Skelch map 300m E-W , 3S0m N-S 



Figure 44. Schematic map of the Shaft House Complex. 



Ill 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



Table 34. Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex (LA 5660) 

Size: 140 m east-west by 40 m north-south 

• Masonry shaft structure. 

• CHff house. 

• East defensive wall. 

• Five free-standing masonry rooms (Features 2, 8, 10, 11, and 12). 

• Three ledge-backed masonry rooms (Features 13, 14, and 16). 

• Two rooms under shelters (Features 9 and 15). 

• Eight storage bins (Features 22a, bin in Room 13, bin in Room 15; Features 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21). 

• Two wall segments perpendicular to the cliff base (Feature 1 and wall north of Feature 10). 

• Three middens (Middens 1, 2, and 3). 

Greater Complex 

Size: 350 m north/south by 300 m east/west 

• Three sweat lodges (LA 71577; Feature 4, LA 71578; LA 71579). 

• Two hearths (Feature 3, LA 71578 and LA 71580). 

• Corral enclosure and shelter (LA 71576). 

• Possible ramada or shelter (Feature 1, LA 71578). 



The Shaft and Cliff House Structures 

The Shaft is a massive two-story, cone-like cham- 
ber that provides a defensive shell around a log 
ladder entrance up the cliff face (Figure 46). The 
shaft opens onto a high ledge and a stairway that 
leads to the cliff house built in a rockshelter on the 
high cliff face. This distinctive construction is a most 
impressive example of fortified architecture, and is 
unique in the inventory of Dinetah fortified works. 

The masonry shaft is, in cross-section, a half cone 
built against the cliff wall and tied to the cliff face 
near the summit with wood beams. The shaft has a 
basal diameter of 3 m and an elevation of about 4 m. 
A notched log ladder provided access within the 
shaft to the upper cliff house. The truncated summit 
of the shaft opens through a roughly triangular- 
shaped doorway framed with wood beams and slats. 
A cover stone may have once been placed over this 
upper hatchway. Above the shaft hatchway there is 
a narrow stair of six masonry steps that ascends the 
ledge to the cliff house. Masonry walls enclose this 
stairway as an additional defensive feature. 



Entrance to both the shaft interior at the base and 
into the cliff house at the stairway summit is through 
narrow doorways backed by masonry walls. These 
walls form a sharp right angle through the narrow 
entranceways. Such entrys require crawling on 
one's side and then turning into the chambers, thus 
leaving any would-be intruder vulnerable to assault. 

The cliff house is built into a rockshelter, 14 m 
long, 2-3 m deep, and about 3 m high, located on the 
cliff face some 6-8 m above the lower ledge. There 
are two chambers in the cliff house (Feature 5-6 and 
Feature 7). A single cross wall with a small entry 
divides this cliff shelter. The walls extend to the 
shelter roof and, therefore, no roof construction was 
required in the overhang. However, within the 
Room 5-6 chamber there are numerous (about 20) 
log beams stacked on the floor, many of which are 
quite large (2-4 m long). Stabilization records 
(Chambers 1973) indicate these beams were col- 
lected at the site and placed in the room in 1973 for 
safe-keeping by the stabilization crew. Although 
their use is unclear, it appears the beams relate to 
the construction and use of Shaft House. 



112 



Chapter 6 




Plate 7. Shaft House Pueblito. 



113 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 




114 



Chapter 6 




Plate 8. Tower at Shaft House, looking west. 



115 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



Bench shelf 





Cliff house 



Entrance 



Cliff 



5 

I 1 I I I I 



meters 
Scale approximate 



Figure 46. LA 5660: Schematic cross-section of shaft/tower at Shaft House, view to west. 



116 



Chapter 6 



In the cliff house there are eight window ports, 
each 10 x 10 cm in size, that face downward toward 
the shaft hatchway and onto the walled stair. These 
ports would allow for the discharge of arrows onto 
the ledge if the intruder were so unfortunate as to 
have gained access thus far. There are also seven 
arrow ports in the lower shaft housing. 

In all, the shaft and cliff house represent a formi- 
dable defensive work that employed a series of bar- 
riers, including elevation, numerous arrow ports, a 
housed ladder shell, two blind entryways, and defen- 
sive walls. Access into the cliff house by hostile 
forces is inconceivable. 

Two additional masonry structures, Features 8 
and 9, are located west of the shaft/tower on the 
same rock ledge. Only the northeast corner of the 
Feature 8 room remains standing. Other sections of 
the room (especially the east wall) are collapsed into 
a rubble mound 1 m high. Considerable rubble and 
some wood beams lie scattered about on the talus 
below the ledge. In an eroded bank adjacent and east 
of the room a 25 cm deep section of fill in a 2 m x 50 
cm area is exposed in which charcoal bands of cul- 
tural sediment are present. The cliff base wall back- 
ing the room is adobe plastered. A wall alignment 
extending along the ledge east of the room suggests 
the possible presence of an additional collapsed 
structure. Room 8 is 2.5 x 3 m in size. 

Another room. Feature 9, built under an overhang 
is located at the east end of the ledge. A masonry 
corner wall 75 cm thick remains standing as does a 
small section of the east wall. The overhang is 1 m 
high and the floor is stone. The cliff face in the room 
is adobe plastered. This unit is roughly triangular in 
form and 4 m east-west by 1-3 m north-south. 

The East Ledge Area 

Most of the structures in the east site area are built 
on a cliff base ledge 2 m below the shelf that supports 
the shaft. The east ledge structures include a two 
room provenience (Features 10 and 11), one isolated 
room (Feature 12), two cliff-backed rooms (Fea- 
tures 13 and 14), one room built under a large boul- 
der (Feature 15), and the high eastern defensive 
wall. 

The Feature 10-11 roomblock consists of two 
large masonry rooms with walls standing to a maxi- 
mum elevation of 1.5 m. Room 10 is 3 x 4 m in size 
and Room 11 is 3.3 x3m in size. Room 10 is in good 
condition and only the northwest corner of the struc- 



ture has collapsed. The room contains an estimated 
50 cm of fill. Two large juniper beams are present 
in the southeast corner. Two arrow ports are pres- 
ent in the south wall. 

Most of Room 11, except the northeast corner, 
has collapsed and rubble is scattered down the talus 
slope below the ledge. The southeastern section of 
the room was supported on floor beams across a 
cleft in the ledge. When the floor beams gave way, 
most of the structure collapsed. There is an entry in 
the north wall and a pile of rubble 1 m deep in the 
northeast room area. 

A short wall segment, perforated by an entry, joins 
the Rooms 10 and 11 to the cliff wall. The area north 
of the roomblock is under a cliff overhang and is 
sheltered. This area was either a room/shelter or the 
perpendicular wall was built to control access along 
the cliff base. 

A small storage bin. Feature 21, is located at the 
cliff base below Rooms 10 and 11. It is constructed 
under a small overhang and is 50 cm in diameter. 

Room 12 is an isolated structure 3 x 3.5 m in size 
with a north wall entryway. The room has high (2.25 
m ) walls that suggest a possible second-story para- 
pet extension. There are two arrow ports in the 
south wall. Diagonal juniper slats cross the extreme 
northwest corner of the room and may have been 
some type of rack. The room contains an estimated 
50 cm of fill. 

Room 13 is an isolated cliff-backed structure 3 x 
2 m in size. Only remnants of the east and west walls 
are standing and the south wall is defined by a low 
alignment. The room contains a bin (50 cm square) 
in the northeast corner formed by a large stone set 
perpendicular to the east wall near the cliff face. 
The room is located under a partial overhang and 
some perishables may exist in the dry shallow fill 
(estimated 20 cm depth) at the cliff base. The cliff 
wall backing the room is plastered with adobe earth. 

Room 14 is a semi-ovoid cHff-backed structure 
located adjacent to the high eastern defensive wall. 
The room is 2 m across and has standing walls that 
are slightly domed to a 1.25 m elevation. Entry was 
apparently from the roof. There is a single arrow 
port in the south wall, the floor is bedrock, and the 
interior walls are plastered with adobe soil. 

Room 15 is constructed under a large boulder 
overhang on the south margin of the cast ledge. The 
room is 2 x 3 m in size with walls standing to 50 cm. 
Considerable masonry rubble is scattered on the 



117 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



slope below the structure. A storage bin is present 
in a boulder crack at the back of the room. The 
interior wall surfaces are plastered with adobe soil. 
Fill in the room is estimated to be 25 cm in depth. 

The East Wall 

A massive wall, 4 m high and 12 m in length, is 
constructed across the ledge at the east end of Shaft 
House Pueblito. This impressive wall effectively 
cuts off access to the site from the east and is clearly 
a defensive work. It is possible, however, to pass by 
on a narrow cliff edge ledge around the wall, but 
passage is precarious. It is curious that the east wall 
was built here, since access to the ledge top east of 
the site is itself restricted. Entry to the site is more 
easily gained on the west where there is no attempt 
toward fortification. Perhaps additional fortified 
works were planned for the site but never com- 
pleted. 

The east wall is a somewhat sinuous structure 
built of irregular sandstone blocks 20-40 cm in size 
and set with an abundance of mortar. There are 
three arrow ports in the wall at 75 cm, 1.25 m, and 
2 m elevations. 

Structures on the Western Ledge 

Features 1, 2, and 2A consist of a masonry room 
(Feature 2), a wall segment perpendicular to the chff 
(Feature 1) and a small storage bin (Feature 2A), all 
located on a narrow ledge about 15 m west of the 
shaft. The Feature 2 room is 2 x 3 m in size and, 
based on the considerable rubble below the unit, was 
a full height construction. A masonry wall (Feature 
1), originally 4 m long, joined the room to the cliff. 
This wall blocks entrance to the ledge from the west 
but it has a narrow entryway. The area between the 
room and cHff is under an overhang and is sheltered. 
A small semicircular storage bin (Feature 2A) is 
located in a small overhang nearby. It is 75 cm in 
diameter with walls 50 cm high. 

Located on the upper ledge about 25 m west of 
Features 1 and 2 are two additional masonry struc- 
tures. One unit. Feature 15, is a boulder-backed 
room 2 X 3 m in size. Walls stand to an elevation of 
only 25 cm but there is an abundance of rubble and 
wood beams on the slopes below, indicating that it 
was a full height masonry feature. 

The westernmost feature in the Shaft House 
Complex is a masonry storage bin. Feature 17, built 
on a high narrow ledge under an overhang (Figure 



47). The bin is 1.75 m in diameter and has walls 1 m 
high. The interior walls and cliff face in the bin arc 
plastered with adobe. 

Storage Bins on the Lower ClifT 

Three storage bins (Features 18, 19, and 20), are 
located at the base of a high cliff directly below Shaft 
House. They are about 20 m east of the only access 
route up the cliff to Shaft House from the canyon 
floor. All are semicircular masonry bins built under 
small overhangs. Feature 18 is 2 x 1 m in size and has 
walls built under a shelter 1 m high. The interior 
walls and cliff face in the bin are plastered with 
adobe. This unit contains about 20 cm of fill. Fea- 
ture 19 is a small bin, 50 cm x 1 m in size, with a small 
door 20 X 20 cm in size. The walls are 30 cm high and 
the floor is stone. Feature 20 is a collapsed bin about 
50 cm X 1 m in size. 

Middens 

There is little midden debris at the Shaft House 
complex and only a light scatter of artifacts was 
found in the area. It is estimated that only 6 cubic 
meters of trash fill are present at the site. Two small, 
shallow cliff edge middens (Middens 1 and 2) and a 
small midden (Midden 3) between two boulders 
were located. Surface artifacts in the complex are 
infrequent and careful inspection revealed only 61 
sherds and 8 lithic artifacts. There is also little in the 
way of scattered artifacts on the talus slope under 
the cliff base, indicating that the relative lack of 
midden is not a result of erosional dissipation. Mid- 
den 1 was the only area where burned bone was 
found, though it does occur there in abundance (25 
specimens in a 6 x 4 m area). Both Middens 2 and 3 
have some burned sandstone spalls, but, in general 
there is very little fire-cracked rock in the area of 
Shaft House. 

Condition and Recommendations: Most of the ma- 
sonry structures at Shaft House remain in stable 
condition following the BLM-NPS stabilization ef- 
forts. There are few surface artifacts at the site and 
unauthorized collection does not seem to be a real 
problem. There are, however, two problem areas in 
the site complex that should be addressed in contin- 
ued management efforts. 

The original log ladder within the shaft was unfor- 
tunately stolen around 1985 and now only a juniper 
post in the shaft allows access to the upper cliff 



Chapter 6 



c 

D) 
CO 






119 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



house. Visitors who dimb the shaft have difficulty 
making the ascent and this has caused attritional 
wear on the upper hatchway frame. Perhaps a new 
log ladder should be placed in the shaft to prevent 
wear to the upper wood frame. 

There are numerous wood beams and consider- 
able pack rat debris in the interior of the cliff house 
chamber. This material is a possible fire hazard, and 
there is evidence that visitors have built small fires 
in the chamber. A large fire would destroy the 
stored beams and adversely impact the cliff house. 
A small sign should be placed in the chamber that 
informs the visitor of this potential hazard. 

No tree-ring dates have, as yet, been obtained 
from Shaft House, despite the fact that datable wood 
is abundant, especially in the cliff house. Sampling 
of this wood should be completed before continued 
attrition. This tree-ring information is most import- 
ant to the interpretation of the site complex. 

Shaft House receives considerable visitation and 
the area should be monitored to determine its con- 
dition. A precautionary sign should be placed on the 
mesa top that notes the possible danger of climbing 
the ruin walls and cliffs and that requests that camp- 
ers pack out all trash. 

Artifacts: A total of 61 sherds was located in various 
areas of the site complex (Table 35). Dinetah Gray 
represents 82% of the collection. Nearly equal fre- 
quencies of Smoothed and Striated styles are pres- 
ent. Nine sherds of Gobernador Polychrome are 
also present (80% of the decorated collection), 
while traces of Acoma material (one red slipped 
sherd) and a single oxidized red possible Navajo 
vessel were found. This oxidized specimen has a 
thick, soft wall and an unslipped, uneven surface. 

A systematic examination of the Shaft House 
Pueblito revealed only eight lithic artifacts (Table 
36). Most are quartzite (only two are chert), and 
they are about equally divided among flakes, peck- 
ing stones, angular debris, a core, and a ham- 
merstone. 



LA 71576 



Field Number: OCA 408-28. 

Site Type: Corral and shelter. 

Cultural-Temporal Airinity: Probable Navajo, 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on a high 
cliff ledge on the north side of Cuervo Canyon ap- 
proximately 150 m northeast of Shaft House. The 
ledge is 10 m below the mesa top canyon rim in a 
situation very similar to that of Shaft House. Access 
to the ledge is from the mesa top via a single cleft in 
the upper cliff and cannot be gained directly from 
Shaft House. The ledge is 12 m wide with a high cliff 
below. The ledge is level and exposed to the south- 
west, and Shaft House is visible from the western 
ledge. A mantle of sand on the slickrock fosters 
growths of piiion-juniper, ephedra, cholla, prickly 
pear, snakeweed, and sage. 

Description (Figure 48): This site includes a corral 
enclosure and a shelter located on a high cliff ledge 
in an area 20 m east-west by 12 m north-south. The 
enclosure is defined by a semicircular alignment of 
large sandstone blocks (30-70 cm in size) placed 
against the cliff; it is 8 x 5 m in size and is partially 
under a narrow overhang. The location is well shel- 
tered. The stones that form the enclosure are 
burned, probably due to a conflagration of the brush 
or deadwood fence originally placed on the rock 
alignment. 

A shelter defined by an alignment of stones in a 
group of boulders is located on the cliff edge 8 m 
south of the corral. The boulders and the stacked- 
rock wall enclose a 3 x 2 m area. No artifacts were 
found. 

Similar early corrals have been documented in the 
Alamo Navajo area (Walt and Marshall 1984). In 
the Alamo area, corral enclosures were found on 
high mesa points. The stones closing the point and 
forming the corral enclosure there were also burned 
and small shelters were found outside and adjacent 
to the enclosure. 



Condition and Recommendation: This site is intact 
and protected, and requires no active management. 



120 



Chapter 6 



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Chapter 6 



LA 71577 



Field Number: OCA 408-29. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
250 m to the north of Shaft House on a wide mesa 
top bench about 50 from the western canyon rim. 
The bench is a level area with low cliff ledges 1 m 
high above and below the site. The location is open 
with an exposure to the southwest. A shallow mantle 
of sand covers the bedrock, and the area is in a 
pinon-juniper forest with an understory of sage. 



Description (Figure 49): This sweat lodge site in- 
cludes two burned rock discard mounds and a char- 
coal-stained feature in an area 18 x 12 m in size. The 
Feature 1 discard pile is 6 m in diameter and 1 m 
high and contains an abundance of burned sand- 
stone block 5-20 cm in size. The Feature 2 discard 
pile is a low mound, 25 cm high and 3 m in diameter, 
of scattered burned stone. Adjacent to the discard 
mounds is an area of charcoal-laden soil 4 m in 
diameter (Feature 3). No stones are present in this 
area, no wood remnants of the lodge remain, and no 
artifacts were observed. The abundance of burned 
rock in Features 1 and 2 indicates frequent and 
extended use. 

Condition and Recommendation: This site is intact 
and requires no active management. 




Figure 49. LA 71577: Sweat lodge, Shaft House Complex. 



123 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



LA 71578 



Field Number: OCA 408-30. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge, hearth, and activity area 
(possible shelter). 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located about 75 m 
northwest of Shaft House, on the eastern rim of a 
northern branch of Cuervo Canyon. It is situated 
among detached boulders on the talus ledge below 
the mesa top. The location is exposed to the south- 
west and consists of slickrock, areas of a sandy man- 
tle, and a low talus of scattered boulders. The area 
is bare but fosters growths of pinon, juniper, sage, 
ephedra, squawbush, and grasses. 

Description (Figure 50): This site consists of four 
features including a sweat lodge, a hearth, a rock 
alignment, and a possible ramada located within an 
area 50 x 20 m in size. 

Feature 1, located on a lower bench, is a right 
angle alignment of stone that forms a partial enclo- 
sure 7 X 4 m in size. This may be the basal alignment 
of a ramada or some type of activity area. Sandstone 
blocks 20-30 cm in size form the alignment and a 
light scatter of rubble below the alignment suggests 
an original wall elevation of about 50 cm. A few 
sandstone spalls and slabs in the area are burned, 
but there is no charcoal-laden sediment. Two slabs 
in the feature are shaped. 

An alignment, designated Feature 2, is situated 
between two boulders on the talus slope and 6 m 
above Feature 1. This alignment is 4 m long and is 
composed of sandstone blocks 20-60 cm in size. This 
wall may have been part of a rude shelter built 
against the boulders. 

Feature 3, located on the slickrock 25 m south of 
Feature 1, is a concentration of burned sandstone 
spalls and slabs (5-10 cm in size) in an area 3 m in 
diameter. The mound is only 10 cm high and the 
elements are sparse. This feature is a possible 
hearth, since the spall and slab elements in it are 
dissimilar to the block elements found in sweat lodge 
discard piles. 



Feature 4 is a sweat lodge area located at the ledge 
base in the south site. The mound is 5 m in diameter 
(concentrated in 3 m) and has an elevation of 30 cm. 
Burned stone blocks 10-30 cm comprise the mound. 
No wood remnants of the sweat lodge remain. 



Condition and Recommendations: This site is lo- 
cated near the mesa summit and the trail to Shaift 
House and, therefore, receives frequent visitation. 
Most of the site area is stable; however. Feature 1 is 
subject to erosion. 

Artifacts: Only four sherds of Dinetah Gray (two 
smoothed and two striated) and four lithics were 
found in Feature 1 (Table 37). The lithics include 
three flakes and a pecking stone. 

LA 71579 

Field Number: OCA 408-32. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Probable Navajo, 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is situated on a low 
south-facing canyon bench 100 m east and 50 m 
below Shaft House, on the margin of a lower bench 
in Cuervo Canyon. The location is outside the study 
area but is included here as a component of the Shaft 
House Complex, and is visible from Shaft House. It 
is on a small level area adjacent to a group of large 
boulders, about 20 m above the lower canyon floor, 
and in a scattered piiion-juniper forest where the 
slope is variable. 

Description (Figure 51): This site consists of two 
burned rock discard piles and ash-stained area all 
within an area 15 x 10 m in size. Two mounds of 
burned sandstone rock (5-20 cm in size) are present. 
Both are 1 m in elevation, while one is 3 m in diam- 
eter, and the other is 4 m in diameter. A 2 m 
diameter area of charcoal-laden soil is adjacent to 
the mound. No wood remnants of the lodge remain 
and no artifacts were observed. 

Condition and Recommendation: This site is intact 
and requires no active management. 



124 



Chapter 6 



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Figure 50. LA 71578: Multi-feature component, Shaft House Complex. 



125 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 









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Field Number: OCA 408-33. 

Site Type: Hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Afllnity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top directly above and 75 m north of Shaft House, 
on a south point between two northern tributaries of 
Cuervo Canyon. The area is sandy, open, and level 
in the piiion-juniper forest, where a shallow mantle 
of sand occurs on the bedrock of the canyon rim. 
The location is within the road and adjacent to a 
turn-around made by visitors to Shaft House. 
Description (Figure 52): This site is a single hearth 
with a scatter of ceramic artifacts in a 4 m area. The 
hearth is defined by charcoal-stained sand in a 2 m 
diameter area with an estimated depth of 10 cm. No 
burned stone is present. A light scatter of Dinetah 
Plain sherds from a single vessel and one Gobern- 
ador Polychrome sherd were found in direct prox- 
imity to the hearth stain. A number of modern 
campfires were observed in proximity to the site but 
no other structural features are present. 

Condition and Recommendation: This site has 
been heavily impacted by visitor use and requires 
immediate excavation. 

Artifacts: Twenty sherds from a single Dinetah 
Plain Smoothed vessel and one Gobernador Poly- 
chrome sherd are the only artifacts observed in the 
site area. The Dinetah material has a brown paste 
and is rather thick (6-8 mm). 



126 



Chapter 6 



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Figure 51. LA 71579: Sweat lodge, Shaft House Complex. 



127 



Shaft House Pueblito Complex 



•»•* Modern hearth 




Modern camp 



( \ hearths 



Figure 52. LA 71580: Hearth area, Shaft House Complex. 



128 



Chapter 6 



Shaft House Complex 

Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1: Three sherds of Dinetah Plain 
Smoothed were found near the cliff edge on a broken 
bedrock slope on the mesa directly above Shaft 
House. 

lO No. 2: A single ground slab metate was also 
found on the mesa point directly above and north of 
Shaft House. It is a sandstone slab 30 x 15 x 5 cm in 
size with one ground face. 

lO No. 3: Three flakes were noted on the mesa top 
about 100 m northeast of Shaft House and 30 m west 



of the canyon rim. Two flakes of gray quartzite and 
one of petrified wood are present. No associated 
features were seen in the pinon-juniper mesa top 
forest. 

lO No. 4: Four gray quartzite artifacts were ob- 
served on the mesa about 30 m northeast of LA 
71577. They consist of two flakes, one ham- 
merstone, and a large piece of angular debris. 

lO No. 5: Four sherds of a single Gobernador 
Polychrome bowl were found on the mesa top about 
300 m north-northwest of Shaft House, on the east 
crest of an eroded sandy ridge. One rim suggests a 
deep shouldered form bowl. 



129 



Chapter 7 

Simon Canyon 



The Simon Canyon study area is an 80-acre tract 
located approximately 0.6 miles north of its conflu- 
ence with the San Juan River (Figure 53). The area 
includes a 650 ft north-south section of Simon Can- 
yon extending from the canyon floor on the west to 
the high canyon rim some 440 ft to the east. The 
canyon walls are high and rugged, and there is con- 
siderable relief, ranging from 5750 ft on the canyon 
floor to 6220 ft on the canyon 
rim. A spring issues from the 
sandy canyon floor directly 
below the pueblito and creates a 
riparian habitat with growths of 
Cottonwood, willow, and other 
species. The upper canyon walls 
are clad in piiion and juniper, 
while the cliff base supports 
thickets of squawbush and other 
forbs. Stands of Gambles Oak 
also occur on the ledges and 
upper rim of the canyon walls. 
Impenetrable thickets of robust 
sage appear along the deep allu- 
vial terraces of the canyon floor 
and small sage-grassland 
patches are present on the lower 
benchland. 

Simon Canyon is a rugged and 
deeply incised sandstone canyon 
that penetrates the mesa escarp- 
ment north of the San Juan 
River. The canyon in the study 
area has a single wide bench 
near the canyon floor while the 
upper walls consist of a series of 
high cliffs and narrow ledges. 
The pueblito is located on one of 
the large detached boulders 
scattered on the lower bench. 

The Simon Canyon Pueblito 
does not appear to have a com- 
plex of associated sites (Table 
38), but in the interest of compa- 



rable descriptive format, nearby sites and features 
have been described as "complexes" associated with 
the pueblito (Figure 54). This is the only pueblito 
investigated in the 1989-1990 BLM Survey that does 
not have an associated site complex. The location of 
the Simon Canyon Ruin north of the San Juan River 
is also atypical compared to the other pueblitos. 









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SIMON CANYON 


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Site 


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Figure 53. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in 
the Simon Canyon survey area. 



Simon Canyon Pueblito 



Simon Canyon Pueblito 

LA 5047 

Field Number: OCA 408-35. 

Site Name: Simon Canyon Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase. 

Previous References: 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map 
(1974). 

Hadlock (1969). SJAS Site SJ-117. 

Powers and Johnson (1987:37-38). 

Location-Situation: This pueblito is located in 
Simon Canyon approximately 1.3 miles north of the 
San Juan River, on the lower eastern bench of the 
canyon, and approximately 50 ft above the canyon 
floor. A spring issues from the canyon directly 
below the site. The pueblito is located on a level 
bench, perched on the summit of a large boulder 5.2 
m high and about 8 x 9 m in size (Plate 9). A series 
of detached boulders are on the adjacent lower talus 
of the eastern canyon slope and there are nearby 
exposures of slickrock. The pueblito occupies a 



Table 38. Simon Canyon Pueblito Complex 

Immediate Complex (LA 5047) 
Size: ca 15 x 20 m 

• Single boulder-top masonry room. 

• Low rubble mound below the boulder on the 
north may be a room. 

• Small shelter/overhang under the boulder. 

• Light scatter of associated artifacts. 

Associated Outlying Complex 

Size: 200 x100 m 

• Small storage cavity (LA 71581). 

• Rockshelter (LA 71582). 



fortified but unconcealed position in an open pinon- 
juniper forest, with riparian species such as willow 
and Cottonwood on the adjacent canyon floor. 

Description (Figures 55 and 56): The Simon Can- 
yon Pueblito consists of a single masonry room built 
on the summit of a large boulder. Hand- and- toe 
holds on the upper northwest face of the rock could 
only have been reached by a 2-3 m high log ladder 
(or similar feature). The room was stabilized by the 
BLM in 1974, and stabilization maintenance was 
completed in 1988. The structure has an intact roof. 
The room measures 2.5 x 3 m in size, with a north- 
west-facing entryway. 

An overhang 8 m long and 2-3 m in height under 
the boulder serves as a nice shelter. Modern camp- 
fire debris and some firewood are in the shelter, 
along with clean alluvial fill, 10-30 cm in depth. 

There is a very light scatter of artifacts and some 
rock rubble below the boulder. Only six fiakes, three 
sherds, and a few fire-cracked rocks were observed 
in the area. This site has been frequently collected 
but it is apparent that no midden sediments are 
present. There is a curious accumulation of rock 
rubble on the west side of the boulder, since the 
room is on the east side and is largely intact. No wall 
alignments were seen, but it is possible that a ma- 
sonry-based structure existed here. The rubble 
mound is 25 cm in elevation and is composed of 
sandstone blocks, 10-30 cm in size. 

Inspection of the area surrounding the Simon 
Canyon Pueblito failed to reveal associated cultural 
features. It appears, therefore, that the Simon Can- 
yon Pueblito was an "isolated" structure in contrast 
to the pueblito complexes recorded in the study 
areas south of the San Juan River. 

Condition and Recommendations: The pueblito 
was stabilized by the BLM in 1974 and in 1988 and 
remains in good condition. The roof of the structure 
is intact. The structure has not been dated and 
tree-ring samples (cores) should be obtained from 
the roof beams. This site is located in the Simon 
Canyon Scenic Area and receives considerable visi- 
tation. This visitation does not, however, appear to 
have had a visible adverse impact on the site. 

Inventory of the surrounding area failed to reveal 
associated features and management should there- 
fore be concentrated on the pueblito alone. 



132 



Chapter 7 




Simon Canyon Complex 

Sketch map 300m E-W x 400m N-S 



Figure 54. Schematic map of the Simon Canyon Complex. 



133 



Simon Canyon Pueblito 




134 



Chapter 7 




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Simon Canyon Pueblito 




Figure 56. LA 5047: Simon Canyon Pueblito, view to the north. 



136 



Chapter 7 



Artifacts: An artifact collection was made at the 
site by the San Juan Archeological Society. Three 
sherds, all Dinetah Plain Smoothed specimens, were 
observed. Six lithic artifacts were also found at the 
site (Table 39), and include two manos, two flakes, 
and two cores. 

LA 71581 

Field Number: OCA 408-34. 

Site Type: Storage area in rock cavity. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Unknown, possible 
storage area associated with nearby Simon Canyon 
Pueblito. 

Location-Situation: This site is located in a cavity 
of a large boulder on the talus of the upper east 
canyon slope approximately 150 m southeast from 
the Simon Canyon Pueblito. The area is steep and 
boulder-strewn with a slope of 20-30 degrees ex- 
posed to the north. Pihon-juniper and scattered oak 
grow in the site area. 

Description (Figure 57): This site consists of a 
storage area in a small rock cavity 1.5 m x 80 cm in 
size. The shelter is an eroded cavity in the north side 
of a large boulder. The location is well protected 
from the elements. Within the cavity is a mat of 
juniper bark at 15 cm depth. The remains of a dried 
squash (possibly Cucwbita pepo) were found in the 
shelter and were collected for identification. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is 
stable and undisturbed, and requires no active man- 
agement. 

Artifacts: None were observed in the site area. 



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137 



Simon Canyon Pueblito 



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Figure 57. LA 71581: Storage area, Simon Canyon Complex. 



138 



Chapter 7 



LA 71582 



Field Number: OCA 408-36. 

Site Type: Rockshelter/overhang. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Unknown. 

Location-Situation: This rockshelter is located in a 
low cliff ledge on the lowest western bench of Simon 
Canyon, approximately 150 m northwest of the 
Simon Canyon Pueblito. The shelter is well con- 
cealed by high brush along the low cliff (10 m high) 
face. This cliff backs a sage flat and is 75 m west of 
the Simon Canyon floor. 

Description (Figure 58): This site is a well-pro- 
tected rockshelter/overhang 15 x 5 m in size and 1.5 
m high. The roof of the shelter is smoke blackened. 
The floor is filled to an estimated depth of 2 m or 
more. Most of the shelter is dry and conducive to 
preservation of perishable materials. No artifacts 
were found on the alluviated and densely vegetated 
surface but it is quite probable that this excellent 
rockshelter was occupied. Determination of the na- 
ture of cultural sediments in the shelter would re- 
quire test excavation. 

Condition and Recommendations: This sheltered 
area is stable and undisturbed. The site is concealed 
by brush along the cliff face and is rarely visited. The 
site should not be impacted by continued or in- 
creased visitation to the Simon Canyon Scenic Area. 



Simon Canyon Complex 
Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1: A ground slab metate of fine sandstone 
35 x 55 cm and 8 cm thick was found on the bench 
flat about 100 m southeast of the Simon Canyon 
Pueblito. 

lO No. 2: This is a single Piedra Gray sherd at the 
talus base backing the main east bench about 150 m 
southeast of the Simon Pueblito. This sherd is the 
only evidence of Anasazi presence found in the 80- 
acre Simon Canyon survey. 

lO No. 3: A large quartzite flake was found on the 
first ledge above Simon Canyon wash about 200 m 
south of the pueblito site. 

lO No. 4: This Gobernador Polychrome bowl 
sherd is the only Navajo artifact observed in the 
Simon Canyon survey area, outside of the few arti- 
facts immediate to the pueblito. This suggests very 
marginal utilization of the area by Navajo popula- 
tions. The sherd was on a flat bench point on the 
west canyon side approximately 150 m northwest of 
the pueblito. 



139 



Simon Canyon Pueblito 




^ 
U 



140 



Chapter 8 

Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



The Frances Canyon study area is a 30-acre tract 
located approximately 6.2 miles south of the San 
Juan River (Figures 59 and 60). The area is at the 
head of a deep western tributary of Frances Canyon, 
called Frances Canyon Rincon. This rincon drains 
east 1.9 miles to Frances Canyon Wash. The survey 
area includes sections of the extreme upper rincon 
and adjacent mesa tops. Elevations in the study area 
range from 6600 ft on the rincon floor to 6850 ft on 
the mesa tops. 

The pueblito is located on the north rim of the 
canyon and most of the associated sites are on the 
adjacent mesa top, which is mantled in a pygmy 
forest of piiion and juniper with occasional open 
sage-grassland flats. The walls of the upper rincon 
are ledge-stepped with steep boulder-strewn talus 
slopes. The cliff base and rincon slopes foster 
growths of service berry, squawbush, gooseberry, 
and other forbs. The Ponderosa Pine stands seen in 
some of the nearby rincons are not present here. It 
is interesting to note that some of the timbers col- 
lected from the pueblito are Douglas Fir (Hannah 
1965), which are not in the area today. 

There are two cliff base spring seeps in the study 
area that probably account for the location of the 
pueblito complex. One is located in the rincon head 
directly below and 50 m from the pueblito, while the 
other is in a rockshelter at a rincon head 200 m to 
the northeast. The open alluviated floor of Frances 
Canyon Rincon, 1-3 km east of the pueblito, appears 
to be suitable farmland and may have been the corn- 
field area for the Frances Canyon occupation. 

Table 40 summarizes the sites in the complex. 



Frances Canyon Pueblito 

LA 2135 (also LA 10826 and 

LA 13271) 

Field Number: OCA 408-50. 

Site Name: Frances Canyon Pueblito. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal Afl'mity: Navajo and Pueblo 
Refugee, Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Tree-Ring Dates: Span from 1717-1745. 

Previous References: 

BLM site AR-30-01-189 (1970). 

BLM stabilization workbook and site map. 

Carlson (1965: 31-44). 

Keur (1941). 

Powers and .Johnson (1987:21-24). 

Robinson, Harrill and Warren (1974:73). 

Sleight (1953). Navajo Land Claims, 
N-USJ-GU-II. 

Van Valkenburg and Whitegoat (1956). Navajo 
Land Claims, N-USJ-GLJ-TT. 

Location-Situation: The Frances Canyon Pueblito 
is located at the head of a major western tributary of 
Frances Canyon at an elevation of 6800 ft and is 
referred to here as the Frances Canyon Rincon. 
Within the rincon is a dense pifion-juniper forest. 
The Ponderosa Pine observed in other nearby rin- 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Connplex 



cons is absent here. A spring seep exists in the 
rincon directly adjacent to and 50 m from the 
puebHto and another spring is in the canyon head 
200 m to the northeast. A domestic water supply for 
the pueblito occupation was, therefore, near at 
hand. The canyon slopes below the site are steep 
and boulder-strewn and in the canyon floor there are 
slickrock ledges and rockfalls. The forested mesa 
top is open with low ridges of deep sandy loam and 
an understory of sage. Open lowlands are on the 
canyon floor 2 km to the east and may have been used 
as fields. 



The pueblito was built on the edge of a low cliff 
(4-6 m high) in an area of bedrock ledges, rock 
exposures, and detached boulders (Plate 10). Ac- 
cess to the pueblito from below is restricted but not 
especially fortified. The pueblito is also exposed to 
the open mesa top and as such is not considered to 
occupy a fortified position. Many of the rooms, 
including the tower, are placed on elevated outcrops 
above and adjacent to the cliff edge. Other rooms 
are built up against rock ledges. The organization 
of the pueblito on the various outcrops and on dif- 
ferent levels is somewhat haphazard. 



^ LA 71 584 



^ LA 71589 M ^ 

• LA71591 •lA71587 



2 LA 71583 
^ LA 71 585 



W LA 71588 ^ 



FRANCES CANYON 



LA 71595 



Survey boundary 

Site 

Isolated occurrence 



N 



Figure 59. Survey boundary, sites, and isolated occurrences in the Frances Canyon 
survey area. 



142 



Chapter 8 




143 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Table 40. Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex (LA 2135) 

Size: 100 m east-west by 75 m north-south 

• Approximate 40- unit complex containing a three-story, two-room tower and about 12 additional second- 
story rooms, about 8 storage bins, and 2 corner fireplaces. 

• Two courtyard enclosures are incorporated in the pueblito. 

• One forkstick hogan (noted by Morris in 1915). 

• One cliff-ledge storage bin. 

• One masonry-based hogan. 

• One enclosure (possible corral/pen). 

• One hearth. 

• Eight middens. 

Greater Complex 

Size: 400 x400 m 

• Four sweat lodges (LA 71583, LA 71589, LA 71591, and LA 71595). 

• Hearths (LA 71585 and LA 71593). 

• Hearth-oven area (LA 71586). 

• Ceramic scatter, special function site (LA 71588). 

• Rock art panels (LA 71597). 

• Forkstick habitation site (LA 71596), also a midden and sweat lodge. 

• Two cache sites (lO-lO and LA 71594). 

• Trail on the talus slope below the pueblito is probably associated with the occupation. 

• Two spring seeps are in the complex area. 

Possible Dinetah Phase Component 

• Site (LA 71592) with a midden and associated lithic and ceramic artifacts may be a Navajo habitation 
which predates the Frances Canyon Gobernador Phase occupation. The abundance of lithic material 
and the presence of only Dinetah Gray suggest possible Dinetah Phase affinity. The small sweat lodge 
nearby (LA 71589) may also be associated with this possible early occupation. 

Anasazi 

• Four sites were encountered and are manifestations of the Rosa Phase, Anasazi Basketmaker III 
occupation. Two of the sites are possible habitation areas (LA 71584 and LA 71587). There is a Rosa 
Brown pot drop in the area of LA 71585 and Rosa Phase rock art is present at the shelter-spring 
(LA 71597). 

Historic Camp 

• One site (LA 71590) represents an historic camp. 



144 



Chapter 8 




Plate 10. Frances Canyon Pueblito, looking northeast. 



Description (Figure 61): Emphasis in this study is 
given to the associated sites and features at Frances 
Canyon PuebHto. The pueblito itself was not subject 
to study, although it was schematically mapped to 
provide a base for the associated features observed. 
The most detailed descriptions of the pueblito are 
provided by Carlson (1965:31-35) using, in part, the 
1915 Morris excavation notes. Other details are 
provided by the BLM survey map (1975) and the 
BLM stabilization workbook (1975). A descriptive 
summary and list of previous survey work and col- 
lection from the site is provided by Powers and 
Johnson (1987:21-24). 

Frances Canyon Pueblito is one of the largest 
pueblitos in the Dinetah District. It is a rather hap- 
hazard collection of irregular masonry units which 
are the apparent result of accrctionary develop- 
ments with near cutting dates of 1717, 1721, 1735, 
and 1742, indicating building events throughout this 
period. 

The pueblito is built on the cliff edge, and on and 
adjacent to a series of bedrock outcrops. It is dom- 
inated by the divided three-.story triangular lower. 



The tower is built on the highest rock outcrop at the 
cliff edge and many of the adjacent rooms are built 
against the outcrop, using it for backing walls. It is 
estimated that the pueblito contained about 40 
rooms including 12 second-story and 3 third-.story 
constructions. There are courtyard enclosures on 
the east and west sides of the pueblito complex. 

Numerous round and hewn beams covered with 
juniper slat "tablas" were used in the roof. Many of 
these beams are large and most exhibit ax cuts or 
flat-hewn surfaces. Roofs remain intact in the tower 
and in two rooms. Many beams scattered about the 
site have the potential to yield additional tree-ring 
dates. A log drain "canale" used as a roof top water 
spout is described by Carlson (1965:35). Three 
areas of the pueblito complex were destroyed by fire 
(Rooms 10, 19, and 31). 

Intramural features in the complex include white- 
washed walls, storage bins, pole shelves, wall pegs, 
corner racks, lloor hearths, and two Spanish-style 
"hooded fireplaces" (Plate 11). Two sets of loom 
holes were also found in Room 29. 

There is no evidence of the forkslick structure 



145 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




0' 



I f^ 







146 



Chapter 8 




Plate 11. Hooded fireplace, Frances Canyon Pueblito. 



noted by Morris in 1915 (Carlson 1965:38) which was 
located between the pueblito and the masonry- 
based Room 40. A possible forkstick structure was, 
however, located some 36 m east of the pueblito. 

An additional, previously undocumented court- 
yard was observed in the recent survey directly west 
of the pueblito. The structure is defined by an align- 
ment of sandstone blocks and some intact wall fall, 
which suggests an original wall elevation of about 
1 m. One small room may also be joined onto the 
enclosure. 

Grinding basins, pecked holes, and incised "X" 
forms are on the bedrock exposure adjacent to the 
north roomblock. 

Outlying Features 

A number of outlying features are located adja- 
cent to the Frances Canyon Pueblito and no doubt 
many of the documented sites in the survey area are 
aspects of the pueblito complex. 

There are three features in the eastern midden 
area that escaped previous observation. An enclo- 
sure 6 X 4 m in size and formed by an alignment of 



sandstone blocks (20 x 600 cm in size) is built up 
against a low slickrock exposure south of Midden 3. 
There is little rubble here and the walls probably did 
not exceed 50 cm in height. The function of this 
enclosure is undetermined, although it might be an 
animal pen or small corral. There is a circular align- 
ment of stone in a 3 m diameter area and an adjacent 
artifact scatter about 36 m east of the pueblito. This 
is the possible base of a structure. A hearth defined 
by a 3 m diameter scatter of burned sandstone spalls 
and blocks is present on a sandy fiat some 45 m 
northeast of the pueblito. 

There is also a small storage bin (1 x 1.5 m in size) 
built into an upper cliff ledge above the spring some 
50 m west of the pueblito. Panels of graffiti appear 
on the cliff at the spring and on a rock face below the 
site. Names that could be deciphered included 
WPA-94, Jesus...., Mario Chavez, Nicolas Gallcgos 
October 16-28, M. L. 1904, and Chas. Fleck. 

Scattered beams and rubble are on the talus slope 
below the site. Midden sediments occur at the cliff 
base and scattered artifacts extend well down the 
talus. On the lower talus a cleared trail lined with 



147 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



boulders is visible. Perhaps this is a trail developed 
during the pueblito occupation. 

Two caches were found on the talus slopes some 
200 m east of the pueblito (lO No. 10 and LA 71594) 
and it is probable that other caches were once lo- 
cated in the area. The locations of the burials disin- 
terred by Morris (Carlson 1965:38) are 
undetermined. 

There are a series of outlying sites located adja- 
cent to the Frances Canyon Pueblito, many of which 
were no doubt components of the Frances Canyon 
Complex. The site types found in the immediate area 
include sweat lodges (4), hearths (2), an oven (1), a 
sherd scatter (1), a rock art site (1), caches (2), and 
a forkstick habitation site (1). These sites are docu- 
mented in the Frances Canyon Complex site 
descriptions. 

Middens 

A rather extensive accumulation of midden sur- 
rounds the Frances Canyon Pueblito. There are 
seven middens on the mesa top and midden debris 
occurs at the cliff base and in ledge cracks below the 
pueblito (Table 41). It is estimated that approxi- 
mately 394 cubic meters of midden fill are present at 
the site. The middens on the mesa top consist of a 
rather extensive blanket of dark charcoal-laden sand 
up to 50 cm in depth. These middens are atypical of 
those observed elsewhere in the BLM Pueblito Sur- 
vey in that they contain large quantities of charcoal 
but almost no burned sandstone spalls. Surface ar- 
tifact densities in these middens is moderate and 



burned bone is common. 

A considerable quantity of trash also appears to 
have been dumped over the cliff edge. This area is, 
however, obscured by rubble fall, backdirt, and 
brush. There seems to be more burned sandstone 
on the lower slope midden than observed in the dark 
charcoal-laden mesa top formations. There may be 
some perishable material in the midden fill at the 
ledge base and under boulders. 

Artifacts: A bone awl, 6.5 cm in length, was found 
in the Midden 4 area. Three small glass beads were 
found in midden ant hills directly east of the site. All 
three are tiny flattened globular forms. Two are of 
Type 5J and one is Type 5H as defined by Carlson 
(1965:92). 

The Frances Canyon Pueblito has been subjected 
to repeated surface collection and much of the diag- 
nostic and attractive decorated ceramics have been 
removed. The ceramic types observed in the current 
study are listed by midden in Table 42. The assem- 
blage is dominated by Dinetah Utility Smoothed and 
Striated materials. A trace of indented utility ware 
was also found. Gobernador Polychrome is the most 
common decorated ware, while minor quantities of 
Ako Polychrome and Puname Polychrome were 
found. Traces of Hopi Yellow and possible Rio 
Grande Glazeware were also seen. 

Other ceramic types previously listed from the 
Frances Canyon Pueblito include Jemez Black-on- 
white, Biscuit Black-on-white, and Hawikuh Poly- 
chrome (Carlson 1965:36). The Museum of New 



Table 41. Frances Canyon Pueblito middens 



Midden No. 



Size (m) 



Estimated 


Estimated 
Fill (m^) 


Depth (cm) 


25-50 


155 


25 


60 


25 


60 


25-50 


40 


25 


19 


10 


2 


10-20 


8 


50 


50 



(downslope) 



30x14 

15x16 

30x8 

6x18 

5x15 

3x6 

5x10 

20 X 5 (est.) 



Total 



1251 m 



195-255 



394 



148 



Chapter 8 





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Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Mexico site file lists traces of Frances Polychrome, 
Rio Grande Glaze F, and Tewa Polychrome. This 
file also lists three pitch-covered sherds of Dinetah 
Gray. Sleight (1953) reports a single filleted 
Dinetah Gray. Van Valkenburgh and Whitegoat 
(1956) also report one Majolica sherd. 

The lithics recorded at LA 2135 are listed in 
Tables 43-45. They include 27 artifacts from Mid- 
den 3, 7 artifacts from the talus slope below the 
pueblito, and 13 from other loci. Included are 2 
manos, a mano fragment, 2 metates, and several 
pecking stones. The majority of the other artifacts 
are chert, quartzite, chalcedony, and Jemez obsidian 
flakes. 

LA 71583 

Field Number: OCA 408-37. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This area is located above the 
Frances Canyon Rincon, approximately 200 m 
northeast of the Frances Canyon Pueblito. The site 
is situated about 10 m from the eastern cliff of the 
mesa top, adjacent to a small arroyo floor and a 
slickrock area. A spring seep is located in a cliff base 
rincon 50 m to the east. The sweat lodge is in a 
somewhat secluded area in the piiion-juniper forest. 
There is a slight slope to the south. Shallow sand 
covers the bedrock, and slickrock is exposed in the 
arroyo floors and cliff edge areas. 

Description (Figure 62): This site is a rather exten- 
sive sweat lodge discard pile 6 x 8 m in size with a 
mound elevation of 1-1.25 m. Burned sandstone 
blocks 5-20 cm long form the mound. An area of 
charcoal-stained soil 3 x 2 m in size is present in the 
south mound area. No evidence of the sweat lodge 
remains. No artifacts were noted. The substantial 
size of the discard mound indicates that this lodge 
saw extended use. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is 
stable, and requires no active management. 



LA 71584 



Field Number: OCA 408-38. 

Site Type: Probable habitation. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Rosa Phase, 
Basketmaker III. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top approximately 250 m northwest of the Frances 
Canyon Pueblito, near the southwest corner of a well 
pad. It is situated on the upper east-facing side of a 
low ridge with a slope of 2-5 degrees. The site is 
concealed in the piiion-juniper forest, and sage is 
also abundant. The soil is deep, sandy loam and the 
ground surface is bare. Small arroyos cut the ridge 
and drain southeast into Frances Canyon Rincon. 

Description (Figure 63): The site consists of two 
middens and a scatter of associated artifacts extend- 
ing over an area 40 m north-south by 30 m east-west. 
Both middens are defined by concentrations of arti- 
facts and small sandstone spalls and blocks (5-10 cm 
in size). An estimated one-third of the spalls are 
burned. Chipped stone is common (estimated 200 
items), but ceramics are infrequent (20 items). 

The north midden is a less dense concentration in 
a 5 X 5 m area. The estimated depth of the midden 
is 50 cm. A light scatter of artifacts occurs around 
the middens. No structural remains are visible but 
unburned jacal structures might be present. The 
south midden is a rather dense concentration of 
cultural material in an 8 x 6 m area. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site re- 
mains stable and undisturbed, although adjacent to 
a well pad. The location is subject to minor erosion. 

Artifacts: A total of 19 sherds was observed in the 
site area. Ceramic artifacts are much less frequent 
than chipped stone. The ceramic types found in- 
cluded 15 Rosa Gray sherds (a few are lightly pol- 
ished), 1 Piedra Gray sherd, and 3 Rosa Gray Basket 
Impressed specimens. The basket impressed sherds 
are the basal sherds of Plainware vessels. The im- 
pressions were made by the use of a basket turner- 
ette during vessel manufacture. Twenty lithics, 
almost all chert flakes were recorded (Table 46). A 
mano and a core were also noted. 



150 



Chapter 8 



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151 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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LA 71585 



Field Number: OCA 408-39. 

Site Type: Multicomponent hearth and pot drop 
(ceramic-Hthic scatter). 

Cultural-Temporal Afllnity: Probable Rosa Phase 
pot drop and a Navajo Gobernador Phase hearth. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top approximately 150 m north-northeast of the 
Frances Canyon Pueblito, on the crest of a low hill 
of deep sandy loam. It is 20 m northwest of LA 71586 
and 50 m northeast from the ruin parking area. 
Vegetation is a pihon-juniper forest with an under- 
story of sage. The surface is largely bare, in an open 
and exposed location. Slopes of 2 to 5 degrees sur- 
round the low hill. 

Description (Figure 64): This site consists of two 
hearths, a pot drop, and a scatter of ceramic and 
lithic artifacts within an area 30 x 20 m. One hearth 
is defined by an ash stain, 1 m in diameter, and the 
other is defined by a scatter of a few burned sand- 
stone spalls in a 2 m diameter area. Associated with 
the latter are a few Acoma Red slipped sherds. A 
cluster of Rosa Brown sherds from a single vessel is 
present in a 2 m diameter area on the hill summit. 

A few burned sandstone spalls, 5-10 cm in size, 
are scattered over the site. Other scattered artifacts 
include mostly chipped stone. One mano fragment 
and six lithic artifacts associated with the Navajo 
component are present. 

Condition and Recommendations: The site is stable 
and undisturbed. No action is recommended. 

Artifacts: A cluster of 100 sherds of a Rosa Brown 
vessel were found on the hill summit. The vessel has 
thick walls and a smoothed surface. 

Also present at the site are three Dinetah Gray 
Smoothed sherds and three sherds of an Acoma Red 
slipped vessel (gray paste, sherd temper). These red 
slipped sherds are probably the basal area of an Ako 
Polychrome jar. 

Chipped stone artifacts (26 specimens) are scat- 
tered about the site area. A single mano fragment is 
also present. Lithic artifacts are defined in Table 47. 
Almost all are green chert Hakes. 



152 



Chapter 8 





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153 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



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Figure 62. LA 71583: Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex. 



154 



Chapter 8 



Well pad 




Limits of scatter 



Figure 63. LA 71584: Rosa Phase site, Frances Canyon Complex. 



155 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



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156 



Chapter 8 



Pot drop 



. -TN 408-39 



Scatter limits 



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Figure 64. LA 71585: Multi-component hearth and pot drop, Frances Canyon Complex. 



157 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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158 



Chapter 8 



LA 71586 



Field Number: OCA 408-40. 



LA 71587 



Field Number: OCA 408-41. 



Site Type: Hearths and hearth/oven-midden area. 



Site Type: Probable habitation site. 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top approximately 125 m northeast of the Frances 
Canyon Pueblito. It is 75 m west of the eastern 
canyon rim, on a low east-facing slope in an area of 
deep sandy loam. The area is within the pihon-juni- 
per forest with an understory of sage and is 20 m 
southeast of LA 71585. 

Description (Figure 65): The site consists of a dense 
area of hearth debris with two isolated hearths lo- 
cated within an area 22 x 15 m in size. A dense 
concentration of ash and burned stone is present in 
a 10 X 10 m area. Dark charcoal-stained soil is visible 
in the east half of this low mound (estimated depth 
= 25 cm). Burned sandstone spalls and blocks 5-10 
cm in size lie scattered over the mound. This feature 
differs from a sweat lodge discard area by having 
more ash, more artifacts, and fewer and smaller 
burned stones. The mound instead appears to be a 
midden, formed largely from hearth or oven debris. 
Two hearths are located directly east of the mid- 
den. One is defined by an ash stain, 2 m in diameter, 
and a cluster of six sherds. The other is a 1 m scatter 
of burned sandstone elements 5-10 cm in size. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site re- 
mains in a stable and undisturbed condition. No 
adverse impact is anticipated by continued or in- 
creased visitation to Frances Canyon Pueblito. 

Artifacts: A cluster of 20 Dinetah Gray Smoothed 
sherds, probably from a single vessel, were found on 
the midden, mostly in a 1 m concentration. Six 
additional Dinetah (iray Smoothed sherds were 
noted in the southeast hearth area. 

Only a single item of chipped stone angular debris 
was observed at the site. Six specimens of burned 
bone were also noted, along with four fragments of 
tooth enamel. Culinary activities at the location 
apparently involved the preparation of animal foods. 



Cultural-Temporal Alllnity: Anasazi Rosa Phase, 
possible Basketmaker IIL 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top approximately 100 m northwest of the Frances 
Canyon Pueblito and the canyon rim. The path from 
the parking area to the pueblito lies some 50 m to the 
east. The site is situated on an eroded south slope 
of a mesa top ridge in which arroyos cut into the deep 
sandy soil. Bedrock is exposed in the arroyo floors. 
The features occur in a piiion-juniper forest and are 
exposed in the banks of the arroyos. 

Description (Figure 66): The site consists of three 
concentrations of cultural material within an area 16 
X 32 m in size. Hearth debris, lithic artifacts, and 
occasional ceramic artifacts define the feature con- 
centrations. 

Feature 1 is a rather dense concentration of cul- 
tural material in a 5 m area. The feature is defined 
by a scatter of unburned sandstone slabs 10-20 cm in 
size, some burned sandstone spalls 5 cm in size, and 
associated lithic artifacts including one slab metate 
fragment. Charcoal-stained soil is exposed in the 
adjacent arroyo bank to a depth of 20 cm. 

Feature 2 consists of an area of charcoal-laden 
soil exposed in an arroyo to a depth of 25 cm and a 
scatter of cultural material in an area 8 x 2 m in size. 
An occasional burned sandstone block, 5-20 cm in 
size, and a light scatter of lithic artifacts are present 
in the area. Feature 3 consists of a diffuse scatter of 
cultural material on the ridge slope in a 10 x 15 m 
area. The two sherds found in this area are the only 
ceramics observed at the site. A few burned sand- 
stone spalls, 5-10 cm in size, are also present. This 
area of the site may be a buried jacal habitation but 
no actual evidence of a structure was observed. Fea- 
tures 2 and 3 may represent middens and hearths of 
the site occupation. 

Condition and Recommendation: The site is par- 
tially eroded but otherwise stable and undisturbed. 
No active management is required. 



159 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



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Figure 65. LA 71586: Hearth and oven area, Frances Canyon Complex. 



160 



Chapter i 



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Figure 66. LA 71587: Rosa Phase site, Frances Canyon Complex. 



161 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Artifacts: Only two sherds, a Rosa Brown Plain 
sherd and a Rosa Gray Basket Impressed specimen, 
were observed at the site in Feature 3. Both are early 
Rosa Phase types. It is possible that the site was 
occupied at a rather early stage of development 
dating to an era when ceramic containers first came 
into usage, hence the infrequency of ceramics at the 
site. 

Table 48 lists the 21 lithic artifacts recorded at the 
site. They include a basin metate, a piece of angular 
debris, and 19 flakes (mostly green chert). 



Artifacts: A sample of 126 Dinctah Gray and 3 
Gobernador Yellow sherds were observed at the 
site. Of the Dinetah collection, 100 sherds exhibit 
smoothed exterior surfaces and 26 are striated. Most 
of these sherds probably represent two different 
vessels. Three Gobernador Polychrome sherds 
were also observed. No other artifacts are present. 

LA 71589 

Field Number: OCA 408-43. 



LA 71588 



Field Number: OCA 408-42. 

Site Type: Sherd scatter. 
Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the open 
mesa top approximately 100 m northwest of Frances 
Canyon Pueblito and the north cliff edge of the 
canyon rincon, in an area of exposed slickrock and 
thin sandy soil. The area is an open piiion-juniper 
forest with a gentle slope toward the southeast. If 
not for the forest, the site would be visible from the 
pueblito. 

Description (Figure 67): This site consists of a con- 
centration of ceramic artifacts in an area 12 x 16 m 
in size. The soil is sandy and lightly charcoal stained. 
In one area a dark ash stain 50 cm in diameter is 
present. No fire-cracked rock or lithic artifacts were 
observed. Most of the ceramic materials appear to 
be from two vessels. This site type, consisting of a 
ceramic concentration in an area of lightly charcoal- 
stained soil, is uncommon in the 1989-1990 BLM 
Pueblito Survey. The lack of fire-cracked rock is 
especially notable. The site probably represents 
some type of short-term specialized use area. 



Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, possible 
Dinetah Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top some 250 m west-northwest from Frances Can- 
yon Pueblito and 25 m west of LA 71592, and may 
be associated with it. The site is on the southeast 
slope of a low mesa top ridge, with deep sandy loam 
soil. The lodge is in a small arroyo where it is 
somewhat concealed in a piiion-juniper forest with 
an understory of sage. 

Description (Figure 68): This site consists of a small 
sweat lodge discard pile 4 x 5 m in size, with a 50 cm 
elevation. Burned sandstone blocks 10-20 cm in size 
are present. No evidence of the wooden lodge re- 
mains. Two sherds and a single Hake were found. 

Condition and Recommendations: The mound is 
partially eroded but in a stable and undisturbed 
condition. A pipeline corridor passed nearby but 
did not impact the structure. The site is in a con- 
cealed location and no adverse impact is expected. 

Artifacts: Two sherds of Dinetah Gray Plain 
Smoothed and one fiake were found. 



Condition and Recommendations: The site is stable 
and undisturbed but this concentration of artifacts 
is located in close proximity to Frances Canyon 
Pueblito, and may suffer from continued or in- 
creased visitor collection. 



162 



Chapter 8 



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Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




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Figure 67. LA 71588: Gobernador Phase sherd scatter, Frances Canyon Complex. 



164 



Chapter 8 



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Figure 68. LA 71589: Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex. 



165 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



LA 71590 



LA 71591 



Field Number: OCA 408-44. 



Field Number: OCA 408-45. 



Site Type: Probable sheep camp. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Historic Hispanic or 
Navajo, circa 1940-1950. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top in the pifion and juniper forest approximately 
60 m north of Frances Canyon Pueblito. The camp 
is under a large piiion tree. It is 75 m north of the 
Frances Canyon Rincon northern cliff edge. The 
location is sheltered by the forest. The mesa top is 
level and covered with a mantle of sandy loam. 

Description (Figure 69): This camp site consists of 
a shelter built under a large piiion tree, a hearth, an 
ash dump, a wood pile, a log trough animal feeder, 
and a scatter of tin cans, all within an area 35 m 
north-south by 25 m east-west. 

The shelter is defined by a few ax-cut piiion logs 
resting against and lying under the piiion tree. These 
logs were the apparent frame of a brush or tarp tent 
structure. A hearth defined by three sandstone 
blocks is located adjacent to the shelter. Nearby is 
an area of wood chips, indicating the location of the 
wood pile. A mound of charcoal and ash, 3 m in 
diameter, is northeast of the shelter. The size of this 
ash pile suggests that the camp occupation was 
somewhat extended or that it was a winter camp. An 
animal feeder (a log with a "V" ax-cut trough) is 
located 15 m south of the shelter. Scattered about 
the camp are tin cans, including a meat can with a 
key strip, a 1 lb. coffee can, a tobacco tin, a number 
of food cans with cut off tops, and a KC baking 
powder lid is also present. One can has a hammered 
base suggesting use as a mortar. 

This site is a Hispanic or Navajo campsite that was 
used sometime in the period from circa 1940 to 1950. 
It clearly post-dates the era of archeological explo- 
ration at the pueblito and is not an expeditionary 
camp. 

Condition and Recommendations: Stable and un- 
disturbed. No management actions are required. 



Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is on the mesa top 
approximately 150 m northwest of Frances Canyon 
Pueblito and 25 m east of the pipeline. The pueblito 
is visible from the site at 109 degrees. The site is in 
the pifion-juniper forest on the edge of a low ridge. 
To the east, an arroyo is cut into the deep sandy loam 
of the mesa top. The site is exposed with a slope of 
2-10 degrees toward the southeast. There is no bed- 
rock exposed in the immediate site area. 

Description (Figure 70): This site consists of a large 
mound of burned sandstone blocks, an ash stain on 
one side of the mound, and a small scatter of arti- 
facts. The mound is a discard pile from a sweat 
lodge and is quite extensive, measuring 15 x 8 m in 
size with an elevation of 50 cm. The mound is com- 
posed of burned sandstone blocks, 5-20 cm across, 
with 10-20 cm blocks most common. No evidence of 
the lodge remains. A concentration of ash occurs on 
the south mound in a 2 x 4 m area. 

Condition and Recommendations: The mound has 
a small pothole in the central area but is otherwise 
stable and undisturbed. No adverse impact to the 
site is anticipated by continued or increased visita- 
tion to the Frances Canyon Pueblito. 

Artifacts: One Dinetah Gray Smoothed sherd, one 
hammerstone, one core, and three flakes were 
found. The five lithics are described in Table 49. 



166 



Chapter 8 



Cans 



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Cans 



Figure 69. LA 71590: Historic camp, Frances Canyon Complex. 



167 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




'Sherd 



Figure 70. LA 71591: Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex. 



168 



Chapter 8 









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LA 71592 



Field Number: OCA 408-46. 

Site Type: Possible Dinetah Phase midden-habita- 
tion site and a Rosa Phase hearth. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Multicomponent Nav- 
ajo Dinetah Phase and Anasazi Rosa Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the mesa 
top approximately 200 m northwest of Frances Can- 
yon Pueblito. The site is also 25 m east of the sweat 
lodge in LA 71589. The well pad tank is 200 m 
distant to the north. The site is placed on the eastern 
slope of a low sandy ridge. Soil in the area is a deep 
sandy loam and no exposed bedrock appears in the 
immediate site area. The location is in a pinon-juni- 
per forest with a sage understory. Exposure is to the 
east with a slope of 5-10 degrees. 

Description (Figure 71): Rosa Phase Component - 
A single hearth (Feature 1) of apparent Rosa Phase 
origin is present in the north site area. It consists of 
an ash stain in the sandy soil 2 m in diameter. Three 
Rosa Gray sherds were observed. 

Possible Dinetah Phase Component - A midden 
with two probable hearths and an area of scattered 
artifacts appears at this site in a 25 m north-south by 
20 m east-west zone. The midden (Feature 2) con- 
sists of a concentration of cultural materials in an 
area 8 x 6 m in size. Within this midden are two 
charcoal stains 1-2 m in diameter, a scatter of burned 
and unburned sandstone spalls (5- 10 cm in size), and 
about 100 Dinetah Gray sherds from a single vessel. 
One shaped sandstone slab, 20 x 30 cm in size is also 
present. 

The estimated depth of fill in the midden is 25 cm. 
This midden probably represents cultural debris as- 
sociated with a forkstick habitation unit, but no evi- 
dence of the habitation remains. 

A scatter of cultural material is also present 10 m 
north of the midden along a 10 m section of arroyo 
(10 X 3 m in size). A few sandstone blocks 10 cm in 
size are present, along with a few sherds, some 
chipped stone artifacts, and a single mano. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is par- 
tially eroded but is otherwise in a stable and undis- 
turbed condition. It should not experience adverse 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




170 



Chapter 8 



impact due to continued or increased visitation at 
Frances Canyon Pueblito since it is concealed in the 
forest some 200 m distant. Because of its possible 
Dinetah Phase affiliation, it has considerable signif- 
icance. Indeed, this is the only site (besides LA 
71589) of possible Dinetah Phase occupation en- 
countered in the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey, 
and it should receive attention if a testing project is 
initiated in the complex. Samples for dating should 
be obtained to determine if it is indeed the earliest 
Navajo site known in the Frances Canyon Complex. 

Artifacts: All of the Navajo ceramics observed at 
the site are Dinetah Gray. In the Feature 2 midden, 
80 Dinetah Plain Smoothed sherds, probably from a 
single vessel, were counted. Four Dinetah Plain 
Striated sherds were also found in the midden. In 
Feature 3, 6 Dinetah Plain sherds (3 smoothed and 
3 striated) were found. No Gobernador Yellow 
Ware was found at the site. Three sherds of Rosa 
Gray material were noted in the north hearth area 
(Feature 1), indicating that the hearth is of Rosa 
Phase origin. 

An estimated 50 items of chipped stone material 
were observed and the collection includes 2 manos 
and a pecking stone. A sample of 26 lithic artifacts 
from the site is defined in Table 50. Most of the 
flakes are green chert. 

LA 71593 

Field Number: OCA 408-47. 

Site Type: Camp site. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Unknown, possible 
protohistoric (see discussion of lithic artifacts). 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the south 
point of Frances Canyon Rincon approximately 275 
m southwest of the pueblito. It is at the western head 
of the canyon about 50 m west of the upper west cliff, 
in an area of exposed slickrock with mantle areas of 
shallow sand. The site slopes north at 2-5 degrees 
down to a slickrock drainage area. Exposure is to 
the south and the site is concealed in the pinon-ju- 
nipcr forest of the canyon rim. Many of the features 
are scattered due to the numerous erosional chan- 
nels which bisect the area. Depth of cultural sedi- 
ments in the site area does not exceed 25 cm. 



Description (Figure 72): This apparent camp site 
consists of five hearths with associated concentra- 
tions of fire-cracked rock and lithic artifacts which 
appear scattered within an area 45 m east-west by 
25 m north-south. Each of the five features in the 
site consists of a small concentration of artifacts and 
scattered hearth debris. Groundslone is present 
only in Feature 1. These concentrations range from 
3-10 m in diameter and depth of fill, where present, 
is estimated to be 10-20 cm. In each of the areas a 
few burned sandstone spalls and blocks (5-10 cm in 
size) are present. 

In Feature 1, three metate stones (two fragments 
and one burned basin metate in four pieces), one 
mano, a projectile fragment, and a chopper were 
found along a 7 m section of an arroyo. Concentra- 
tions associated with Features 2, 3, and 5 appear in 
areas 3-4 m in diameter. Feature 4, a 10 m diameter 
concentration, has within it a 1 m diameter area of 
charcoal-stained soil. Four unburned sandstone 
slabs, 10-20 cm in size, are also present in Feature 4. 

Remarks: This site type, an accramic multiple 
hearth area, is singular in the BLM Pueblito Survey. 
Lithic materials found at the site resemble the Nav- 
ajo assemblages documented elsewhere in the com- 
plex, although ceramics were present in the other 
assemblages. This similarity suggests a protohis- 
toric (possible Navajo) affinity for the site. The 
possibility, however, that the site is a late Archaic 
Period manifestation (or an aceramic Anasazi site) 
cannot be overruled. Radiocarbon dating would 
prove useful. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site has 
been surficially eroded and most of the hearths have 
been scattered and deflated. Some shallow cultural 
sediments exist, especially in the Feature 4 area. 
The site is otherwise undisturbed. It is located in an 
area distant from the pueblito and should not be 
significantly impacted by continued or increa.sed 
visitation. 

Artifacts: Tables 51-53 describe the lithic artifacts. 
Feature 1 contained 3 metates, a mano, a projectile 
point, a chopper, a hammcrstone, and a core, while 
the other lilhics at the site were primarily quartzile 
flakes. A total of 27 artifacts were recorded. No 
ceramics were observed in the site area. 



171 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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175 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



LA 71594 



Field Number: OCA 408-48. 

Site Type: Cache of three Navajo vessels. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This cache was located under 
a large talus-side boulder on the upper south slope 
of Frances Canyon Rincon, approximately 200 m 
southeast of the Frances Canyon PuebHto and about 
50 m below the upper cliff of the east mesa point. 
The cache was also about 50 m south of lO No. 10, 
an iron ax found in a crack in the upper rock ledge. 
The cache was under an overhang of one of the 
easternmost boulders on the north slope. Slopes in 
the area dip south at 20 degrees. 

Description (Figure 73): This site was a cache of 
three Navajo culinary vessels under a large boulder. 
The vessels were partially buried and, where ex- 
posed, were broken into large sherds. A few sherds 
eroding from the cache were scattered on the slope 
below the boulder. 

Condition and Recommendations: This cache was 
excavated in December 1989 (see Appendbc A). 

LA 71595 

Field Number: OCA 408-49. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This sweat lodge is located on 
the Frances Canyon Rincon floor directly below and 
south 150 m from Frances Canyon Pueblito. The 
lodge was placed on a small earthen bench directly 
adjacent to the slickrock canyon floor. The struc- 
ture is secluded but is not concealed from the 
pueblito above. 



Description (Figure 74): This site consists of a sweat 
lodge discard pile. No evidence of the actual lodge 
remains. The discard mound is 3 x 4 m in size and 
30 cm in elevation and with burned sandstone blocks 
5-30 cm in size (most are 10-20 cm). No artifacts 
were found in the site area. The mound size suggests 
repeated, but not extensive, use of this location. 

Condition and Recommendations: Stable and un- 
disturbed. No management action is necessary. 

LA 71596 



Field Number: 

sance area. 



OCA 408-51, eastern reconnais- 



Site Type: Forkstick hogan with midden. 

Cultural-Temporal AtFmity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located outside the 
Frances Canyon study area but was found in a brief 
reconnaissance of the eastern periphery. The site is 
located on the lower bench of the Frances Canyon 
Rincon approximately 300 m southeast from Fran- 
ces Canyon Pueblito and some 200 ft below the 
pueblito. The site is on a wide, open bench of the 
north canyon slope 50 m from the lower cliff edge in 
a pinon-junipcr forest at an elevation of 6600 ft. 

Description (Figure 75): This site consists of a well- 
preserved forkstick construction, a midden area, 
and a nearby sweat lodge discard pile. Large 2 m 
long beams of a forkstick structure are scattered in 
about a 5 m diameter area. Many of these logs are 
suitable for tree-ring samples. Two burned sand- 
stone slabs are near the structure. 

A midden is located 10 m south of the forkstick. 
It consists of a concentration of ash, burned spalls, 
and artifacts in an area 12 x 6 m in size. Some 
burned bone was also observed. 

A sweat lodge discard pile was observed near the 
base of a low bedrock ledge some 50 m northeast of 
the forkstick. 



176 



Chapter 



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177 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




Figure 74. LA 71595: Sweat lodge, Frances Canyon Complex. 



178 



Chapter 8 



Scatter limits 



50m to 
sweat lodge 




Figure 75. LA 71596: Forkstick hogan and midden, Frances Canyon Complex. 



179 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Artifacts: No artifact samples were recorded at this 
site since it is outside of the study area, but Dinetah 
Gray, Gobernador Polychrome, burned bone, and 
Jcmez obsidian were observed. 

LA 71597 

Field Number: OCA 408-52, found in a reconnais- 
sance along the eastern periphery of the study area. 

Site Type: Rock art at a spring seep. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Both Rosa Phase and 
Navajo (apparent Gobernador Phase) pictographs 
are present at this site. 

Location-Situation: This site is located at the head 
of a canyon rincon just outside the northeastern 
corner of the study area, approximately 200 m north- 
east of Frances Canyon Pueblito. A spring seep 
(one of two sources in proximity to the pueblito) 
exists in an overhang at the canyon head, directly 
below the west mesa top and approximately 50 m 
northeast of the sweat lodge at LA 71583. 

Description (Figure 76): This site consists of a large 
overhang with rock art panels and grinding basins. 
A panel of Rosa Phase style rock art is painted on a 
protected cliff face with light brown mud (Figure 76, 
partial panel) that may best be described as "mud 
art". In another area a Navajo Yei figure in red paint 
and a hand (spattered about the negative hand form 
in orange paint) is present. There is a group of 
ground basins (commonly termed ax grinding ba- 
sins) on a large stone in the shelter. The basins are 
10-15 cm wide and 20-30 cm long. One corner of a 
stone also exhibits a series of notched Hues. 

Remarks: This site is located outside the study area 
but is included since it appears to be, in part, a 
component of the Frances Canyon Complex. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were observed. 



Frances Canyon Complex 
Isolated Occurrences 

ID No. 1: This is a core of a medium-grained 
green quartzitic material. It was found in an open 
sage flat. 

lO No. 2: This fragmentary quartzite, one-hand 
mano may be associated with LA 71584. 

ID No. 3: This lO was changed to LA 71590, thus 
there is not an lO No. 3. 

ID No. 4: This is a modern historic campsite 
located some 75 m west of the Frances Canyon 
Pueblito. Two tobacco cans, two slats from a wood 
crate and two cut logs were observed at this location. 

lO No. 5: A quartzite one-hand mano and three 
flakes were found in a sandy area of the mesa top 20 
m from the canyon rim. Two of the flakes are quartz- 
ite and one is chert. A few pieces of fire-cracked 
rock were observed. 

lO No. 6: Three flakes were found in a sandy area 
near the head of the Frances Canyon drainage on the 
mesa top. These flakes may be scattered items asso- 
ciated with the nearby LA 71593. The flakes include 
one large Polvadera obsidian flake with a multifac- 
eted platform, without cortex, and with marginal 
retouch. Another flake of pedernal chert and an- 
other of green quartzite were also present. 

ID No. 7: This is a quartzite chopper and a single 
flake in a sandy area adjacent to slickrock exposures 
on the mesa top at the head of Frances Canyon 
Rincon. This material may be associated with 
nearby LA 71593. 

lO No. 8: This is a mano on the steep talus slope. 

lO No. 9: A spring seep is located at the base of 
the upper cliff in the rincon head directly west and 
about 50 m from the Frances Canyon Pueblito. This 
spring was likely the primary source of domestic 
water for the pueblito. Located on a rock face at the 
spring are the following names incised in the stone: 
Nicolas Gallcgos Oct. 16-28; M.L. 1904; Chas. Fleck. 
Willow, gooseberry, and mullen surround the seep. 

lO No. 10: This is an iron ax (Plates 12a and 12b) 
found in a crack of the upper cliff about 200 m east 
of the Frances Canyon Pueblito. It was wedged in 
the crack of the upper cliff face and suspended by 
the blade. The ax was probably cached in a cavity 
above and fell into the crack. It was located in an area 
protected from the elements, accounting for its ex- 
cellent condition (see Appendix B). 



180 



Chapter 8 





Figure 76. LA 71597: Rock art with Rosa Phase mud glyphs, Frances Canyon Complex. 



181 



Frances Canyon Pueblito Complex 




Plate 12a. Iron ax, front view, 
Frances Canyon Complex. 



Plate 12b. Iron ax, side view, 
Frances Canyon Complex. 



182 



Chapter 9 

Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



The Crow Canyon study area is a 70-acre tract 
located in an eastern tributary of Cafion Largo, ap- 
proximately 16 miles south of the San Juan River. 
The study area, which surrounds Crow Canyon 
Pueblito (LA 20219), is located on the south slope 
of Crow Canyon, approximately 1.2 miles east of 
Canon Largo Wash. The area extends from the floor 
of the canyon up to the south rim and encompasses 
an area approximately 600 x 600 m in size (Figure 
77). Crow Canyon Wash forms the north boundary 
and the south boundary is the canyon rim. The 
survey area includes sections of the canyon floor, the 
steep talus and cliffs of the south canyon slope, and 
a canyon benchland. Elevations within the survey 
area range from 6025 to 6500 ft. Most of the area is 
piiion-juniper forest. Thickets of sage or grease- 
wood are present in the canyon floor, while chamisa 
and tamarisk line Crow Canyon Wash. Slickrock 
tinajas in the south canyon rincons appear within 
200 m of the pueblito. Permanent water flow maybe 
found in springs up Crow Canyon or in Canon Largo 
Wash, within 1.2 miles of the study area. 

Table 54 lists the sites found in the study area and 
these are described in the following text. Fourteen 
sites were documented during the Crow Canyon 
inventory. These include 11 Navajo Gobernador 
Phase components, 2 Anasazi Basketmaker III com- 
ponents, and a rock art site of both Navajo and 
Anasazi affinity. Two of the sites documented (LA 
77880 and LA 77883) were located outside, but ad- 
jacent to, the study area. These sites were included 
in the study since they represent components of the 
Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex. 

It is probable that most of the sites which com- 
prise the core of the complex were located during 
the survey. Additional associated sites may, how- 
ever, appear on the canyon rim above the study area 
or further west along the south bench formation. A 



brief reconnaissance to the east of the study area, 
along the south face of Crow Canyon, failed to reveal 
additional sites. The Crow Canyon Pueblito Com- 
plex, as it is presently defined, includes 1 five-room 
pueblito and 11 associated sites of Gobernador 
Phase affinity. Identified within the associated site 
complex are 8 forkstick hogans, 2 sweat lodge areas, 
1 bell-shaped storage pit, 3 cliff-ledge granary 
houses, 1 cliff cavity storage area, 1 rock art panel, 
and 1 outlying hearth. Other localities found in the 
study area include 1 Glaze F pot drop, a metate, a 
small scatter of chipped stone, and 1 Dinetah Gray 
pot drop. An outcrop of gray quarlzite material on 
the south slope of the canyon east of the pueblito was 
extensively quarried, and scattered cores and Hakes 
appear over an area 250 m north-south by 150 m 
east-west. This is a major source for gray quartzite 
material and was probably quarried by both Anasazi 
and Navajo populations. 

Anasazi sites encountered in the study area in- 
clude one Sambrito-Rosa Phase hearth site (LA 
77872) and two rock art sites (LA 77863 and LA 
77865). Other evidence of Anasazi use in the study 
area includes a small ceramic-lithic scatter (lO No. 
1) of Rosa Phase affinity. A Rosa Phase pithouse 
was noted in a previous survey on a north bench of 
Crow Canyon about 600 m northwest of the study 
area (H. Hadlock 1971, Site No. 6). Rosa Phase rock 
art and another hearth were also located in the 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon study area about 0.9 miles 
to the west. 

All of the sites encountered in the Crow Canyon 
study area are located within the Crow Canyon Ar- 
cheological District (Figure 78). This district is 
listed on the Slate Register of Cultural Properties 
and on the National Register. Only the Crow Can- 
yon Pueblito (LA 20219) was, however, previously 
documented. 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




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184 



Chapter 9 



Crow Canyon Pueblito 

LA 20219 

Field Number: OCA-408-4. 

Site Name: Crow Canyon Pueblito. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Previous Designations: LA 5667, RA-18, Crow Can- 
yon site No. 3, BLM site AR-30-01-2002. 

Previous References: 

BLM stablization workbook and site map. Site 
AR 30-01-2002 (1975). 

Hadlock (1971). 

Haskell (1975). 



Petty (1972). 

Powers and Johnson (1987: 78-79). 

Location-Situation: This pueblito is located on the 
high south bench of Crow Canyon about 1.5 km east 
of the canyon entrance to Largo Wash. The site is 
situated on the edge of a narrow bench and on a 
boulder top approximately 60 m above the canyon 
floor. The bench is strewn with boulders and talus 
debris. 

Description (Plate 13, Figure 79): This site consists 
of a five-room pueblito and two middens located 
within an area 50 m east-west by 25 m north-south. 
One room is built on the summit of a large boulder. 
The other rooms are built in a discontinuous 
roomblock below and adjacent to the boulder unit. 
The midden areas are on the slopes below the 
roomblock and are defined by areas of dark char- 
coal-laden soil and artifact concentrations. 

One masonry room is constructed on the top of a 



Table 54. Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex (LA 20219) 

Size: ca 25 x 50 m 

• Five-room puebhto with two middens. One room is built on top of a large boulder, with others in a 
roomblock below the boulder. Two middens appear on the slope below the pueblito. A rock art panel 
is present on the boulder face. 

Greater Complex 

Size: ca 600 x600 m 

• Singe unit forkstick site with midden scatter (LA 77863). 

• Double unit forkstick site with storage pit and two middens (LA 77871). 

• Double unit forkstick site with one midden (LA 77880). 

• Three unit forkstick site with midden scatter (LA 77883). 

• Rock art site (LA 77865). 

• Three cliff ledge masonry granaries (LA 77865, LA 77869, and LA 77870). 

• Two sweat lodges (LA 77866 and a component of LA 77871). 

• Hearth (LA 77867). 

• Small cliff base storage cavity (LA 77868). 

Anasazi Sites 

• Sambrito or Rosa Phase hearth complex (LA 77872). 

• Rock art sites (LA 77864 and early component al LA 77865). 



185 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




Figure 78. Schematic map of the Crow Canyon Complex. 



186 



Chapter 9 




WW 





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187 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




188 



Chapter 9 



large 3 m high boulder. This room is 3 x 2 m in size 
and has walls which stand to a maximum of 1.5 m 
elevation. The masonry is wet laid sandstone block 
construction with blocks 20-60 cm in size. There is 
an entryway in the south side of the unit facing the 
roomblock below. Access was from the roof of the 
lower room or from a ladder. 

The room has a pole shelf in the northwest corner, 
two arrow ports in the southwest corner, and one 
port in the southeast corner. Fill within the unit is 
10-20 cm deep. 

There are four masonry rooms in a linear block 
below the boulder. The westernmost unit (Room 2) 
is buried by alluvium. It is a rectangular room 2.75 
X 3.75 m in size. Another room (Room 3), located 
directly below the boulder, is 3.5 x 3.5 m in size with 
walls standing to a 50 cm elevation. Room 4 is built 
against a large boulder and appears to have rounded 
corners. This unit may be a masonry based hogan. 
The easternmost unit (Room 5) is substantially 
eroded and is 4 x 3 m in size. Fill within the lower 
roomblock is 50 cm to 1 m in depth. 

There are two middens below the roomblock de- 
fined by areas of dark charcoal-laden sediment 10- 
30 cm in depth. Midden 1, located directly north of 
the boulder unit, is 9 x 8 m in size and has an artifact 
density of 20 items per square meter. Midden 2, 
located northeast of the roomblock, is 18 x 5 m in 
size and has an artifact density of 5 items per square 
meter. Cultural materials observed in the midden 
areas include ceramics, chipped stone, groundstone 
and bone fragments. 

Construction timbers are scattered throughout 
the site. Many of these timbers are in good condition 
and have the potential to yield tree-ring dates. Two 
petroglyphs, one is a Yei figure, are pecked into the 
south rock face below the boulder unit. Some graf- 
fiti is also present on the boulder face. These in- 
clude initials L.A.C. with a date 3-28-1937, W.R.B., 
and others which are difficult to discern. 

Condition and Recommendations: Runoff from 
the steep talus slope directly above the pueblito has 
resulted in some erosional damage. The west room 
(Room 2) has been filled with alluvial sediment while 
the east room (Room 5) is largely eroded. Construc- 
tion of diversion channels on the talus slope above 
the roomblock by the BLM in 1975 has stabilized this 
problem. This pueblito is otherwise in good condi- 
tion. There is no evidence of looting. 



The construction timbers at this site should be 
sampled for tree-ring studies. Those timbers which 
are placed against the boulder for access to the 
upper pueblito unit should be sampled for tree-ring 
dating and replaced by a new notched log ladder. 

Artifacts: Ceramics, chipped and groundstone, 
and bone fragments are present in the site area. 
Artifact collections have been taken from the site by 
the San Juan County Museum (1959) and by the 
BLM (1974) and include ceramics, chipped stone, 
and a projectile point. Ceramic and lithic samples 
were inventoried in this survey from Middens 1 and 
2, but no collections were made. Other cultural 
materials found at the site include bone fragments 
(13 pieces from Midden 1 and 3 from Midden 2) and 
a faceted hematite nodule, 25 mm in diameter. 

A sample of 105 sherds from both middens was 
inspected (Table 55). Dinetah Gray represents 86% 
of the collection while minor quantities of Gobern- 
ador Polychrome and traces of Anasazi materials 
are also present. Most of the Dinetah materials have 
a smoothed treatment (70%) while lesser quanities 
(30%) are striated. A single Anasazi sherd was 
found in the Midden 2 area, but no intrusive historic 
Pucbloan materials are present. 

Twenty-one lithic artifacts from Midden 2 were 
identified (Table 56). All lithics observed in Mid- 
den 2 were recorded and included 15 fiakes, 2 cores, 
2 choppers, 1 pecking stone and 1 basin metate 
fragment. Most of the chipped stone material in the 
sample is gray quartizite but 3 obsidian flakes and 1 
chalcedony flake are also present. The choppers, 
the pecking stone, and the single retouched flake are 
all gray quartzite. 



Table 55. Crow Canyon Pueblito (LA 20219) 


ceramic frequencies 






Ceramic ware-type 


Midden 1 


Midden 2 Total 


Dinetah Gray 






Smoothed 


42 


22 64 


Striated 


19 


7 26 


(jobernador 






Polychrome 


5 


9 14 


Chaco-McElmo BAV 


- 


1 1 


Tola! 


66 


39 105 



189 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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190 



Chapter 9 



LA 77863 



Field Number: OCA 428-1. 

Site Type: Forkstick hogan and associated midden 
scatter. 



Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the south 
side of Crow Canyon approximately 250 m east of 
Crow Canyon Pueblito. It is located at the lower 
talus base directly adjacent to the canyon floor and 
on the west side of the south canyon rincon. The site 
is placed on a low bench adjacent to a deep arroyo. 

Description (Figure 80): This site consists of a sin- 
gle forkstick hogan and an associated midden scatter 
which exists in an area 25 m north-south by 15 m 
east-west. The forkstick structure is defined by a 
circular alignment of stones with a 3 m diameter. 
This structure is located on a small flat adjacent to 
two large boulders. A discontinuous alignment of 
sandstone blocks (10-20 cm in size) defines the 
structure. A scatter of artifacts appears north of the 
structure, covering a 20 x 15 m area. This artifact 
scatter is on the rocky talus slope and has little or no 
depth. Chipped stone artifacts are common and 
groundstone is present. Ceramics observed include 
Dinetah Gray and Gobernador Polychrome. 

Condition and Recommendations: There is some 
marginal erosion of the midden area, but the site is 
otherwise undisturbed and stable. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: The ceramic assemblage from this site is 
unusual in that it contains a predominance of 
Gobernador service vessels with only traces of 
Dinetah Gray. A total of 21 Gobernador Poly- 
chrome sherds from numerous vessels were found at 
the site, while only a single Dinetah Gray Smoothed 
sherd was found. Also present are 4 sherds from a 
single Jemcz Black-on-white jar. The presence of 
Jemez Black-on-white at this site is also atypical as 
Jemez material is only rarely found in Gobernador 
Phase sites south of the San Juan. Indeed, in the 
ELM survey of nine pueblito complexes, this is the 



only site where Jemez Black-on-white material was 
found. The relative absence of culinary ware at this 
single unit habitation site is curious. 

A total of 18 lithic artifacts were found in the site 
(Table 57). Most are gray quartzitic chipped stone, 
with minor quantities of silicified wood. Un- 
retouched angular debris and flakes are present. 
One fiake exhibits a multi-faceted platform. A one- 
hand mano and one other item of groundstone were 
found. 



LA 77864 

Field Number: OCA-408-2. 

Site Type: Rock art site. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Rosa Phase 
and Navajo Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This rock art site is located on 
the lower south cliff of Crow Canyon. The glyphs 
are pecked into the lower cliff face on a east facing 
point near the entrance to the small side canyon. 
The location is 100 m south and 30 m above Crow 
Canyon Wash and 300 m northeast of the Crow 
Canyon Pueblito. 

Description: This rock art site includes petroglyphs 
of both Anasazi Rosa Phase and Navajo Gobern- 
ador Phase affinity. The rock art panels are located 
on a clean face of sandstone and extend for a dis- 
tance of 30 m along the cliff base and 3 m above the 
cliff base. The panels include Rosa-style glyphs of 
hominoid "doll figures," curved line "snakes," 
quadrapeds and hand forms, and two Navajo Yei 
figures. Most of the glyphs are pecked into the cliff 
face, although one of the Yei figures has an incised 
line kilt. No artifacts were observed in the site area. 

Condition and Recommendations: The condition 
of this rock art site is good. There is no associated 
graffilti. Complete photographic coverage of the site 
was made during the survey and no additional man- 
agement actions are presently recommended. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were observed. 



191 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




192 



Chapter 9 



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193 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



LA 77865 



Field Number: OCA-408-3. 

Site Type: Rock art and a granary. 

Cultural-Temporal Alfmity: The petroglyphs are 
Anasazi Basketmaker III Rosa-style. The granary is 
probably Navajo Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located in a south 
rincon of Crow Canyon approximately 300 m south 
and 50 m above the canyon floor. The petroglyphs 
are located at the base of a high east facing cliff 
approximately one-third up the south canyon wall. 
The granary is on a ledge in a rockshelter 40 m above 
and southeast of the rock art panel. Slickrock tinajas 
appear in the floor of the rincon drainage 10 m below 
the granary. 

Description (Figure 81): This site consists of a ma- 
sonry granary structure and a nearby rock art panel. 
The granary is a single room masonry structure built 
within a cliff ledge rockshelter. The room interior is 
2.5 X 1.5 m and 1 m in elevation. The walls are of 
wet-laid sandstone block construction. The entry- 
way, with a sandstone slab jamb, is in the west wall. 
Fill within the unit is about 20 cm in depth. The floor 
of the structure is bedrock. Preservation of the 
structures suggests Navajo Gobernador Phase affin- 
ity. Crow Canyon Pueblito is visible at 66 degrees 
orientation and 200 m distance from the rockshelter. 
The granary is visible from the pueblito, although it 
is otherwise concealed. 

In the floor of the canyon rincon directly below 
the granary shelter are a number of sHckrock tinajas. 
These tinajas contained water during the survey and 
were a probable water source for the Crow Canyon 
Pueblito occupation. 

A group of Rosa Phase petroglyphs are located 
along a 35 m section of the cliff base below the 
granary rockshelter. These glyphs face to the east. 
Most are located from 1-2 m above the cliff base 
except one panel which is 4-5 m high. Glyph subjects 
include multiple Rosa-style hominoids holding 



hands, snakes, and hand prints or bear paws. A very 
impressive large hominoid form with a "snake line" 
extending from the head is 2 x 1 m in size. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were observed in the site. 

LA 77866 

Field Number: OCA-408-5. 

Site Type: Sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This lodge site is located on a 
south bench of Crow Canyon. It is approximately 
250 m south from and 65 m above the canyon floor, 
and 150 m east of Crow Canyon Pueblito. The lodge 
is placed on a small sandy flat adjacent to the upper 
talus. This lodge is no doubt associated with the 
Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex. It is secluded from 
the pueblito by a distance of 150 m and is concealed 
below and to the east of a low ridge. 

Description (Figure 82): This is a sweat lodge site 
defined by two piles of burned rock which appear in 
a 10 X 15 m area. One is 8 m in diameter and has a 
50 cm mound elevation. The other is 2 m in diameter 
with a 20 cm mound elevation. All of the stones in 
these dicard piles are burned sandstone blocks 5-15 
cm in size. No evidence of the lodge remains. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifact Assemblage: No artifacts were found in the 
site area. This is typical for Gobernador Phase 
sweat lodge sites. 



194 



Chapter 9 



Prov 2 
Petroglyph panels 



N 



A 428-3 




Figure 81. LA 77865: Multicomponent rock art and granary, Crow Canyon Complex. 



195 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



N 



) 



Base of talus 



^ 



Burned rock piles 

O o o 

• « e • . 



»o 



428-5 



▲ o 

1> 




Figure 82. LA 77866: Goberndor Phase sweat lodge, Crow Canyon Complex. 



196 



Chapter 9 



LA 77867 



Field Number: OCA-408-6. 

Site Type: Hearth and ceramic-lithic scatter. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the only 
major bench on the south face of Crow Canyon. The 
site is near a bench point approximately 150 m north- 
east of Crow Canyon Pueblito and 200 m south of 
Crow Canyon Wash. A shallow cover of sandy soil 
and exposed bedrock ledges and slickrock areas 
appear in the immediate site area. 

Description (Figure 83): This site consists of a sin- 
gle hearth and a light scatter of associated artifacts 
which exist in an area 17 m east-west by 5 m north- 
south. This site is a probable hearth area associated 
with the nearby Crow Canyon Pueblito. Dinetah 
Gray and Gobernador Polychrome ceramics indi- 
cate a Navajo Gobernador Phase affiliation. There 
is a concentration of ceramics and burned bone in a 
3 m area which has been designated as Feature 1. 
There are also a few burned sandstone spalls, 5 cm 
in size, in this area. Most of the ceramics are 
Dinetah Smoothed sherds from a single vessel. 

There is a light scatter of artifacts outside Feature 
1. These include a cluster of Acoma Red sherds, one 
Gobernador sherd and one piece of Washington 
Pass chert. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: Artifacts found include 2 pieces of 
chipped stone, 11 burned bone fragments, and 24 
sherds. Most of the ceramic artifacts found at the 
site came from Feature 1 and appear to be fragments 
of a single Dinetah Gray Smoothed vessel. Other 
ceramics include 2 Gobernador Polychrome sherds, 
5 Acoma Red slipped sherds and 2 Dinetah Gray 
Striated sherds. The Acoma Red sherds found in 
the west site area are all from the ba.se of single large 
jar. These sherds are probably the basal sherds of 



an Ako Polychrome vessel. 

Only two chipped stone artifacts were found in 
the site, although scattered gray quartizite quarry 
debris is littered over the entire bench surface. One 
of the Hakes, found in the west site area, is of Wash- 
ington Pass material. The origin of this material is 
in the Chuska Mountains some 80 miles to the south- 
west. Traces of Washington Pass chert were also 
found in the BLM 1989 Pueblito Survey at Largo 
School Pueblito, Hooded Fireplace Pueblito, at the 
Spit Rock Pueblito, and at a sweat lodge (LA 71591) 
in the Frances Canyon Complex. 

LA 77868 

Field Number: OCA-408-7. 

Site Type: Storage cavity-cache. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Unknown, possible 
Navajo, Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located at the base 
of a 4 m tall ledge high on the south wall of a Crow 
Canyon Rincon. The cavity is about 30 m below the 
canyon rim. It is in an isolated and secluded location. 
Access to the area is difficult and relocation of the 
site will prove difficult. A large trunk of petrified 
wood is exposed in the wall of the cavity. 

Description: This site is a small cavity-rockshelter 
located at the base of a low ledge near the canyon 
rim. The shelter is a small cave 3.25 m across the 
mouth, 2 m in depth and 1 m high. The cavity 
contains 10 cm of fill over a bedrock floor. Cedar 
bark matting is visible in the fill. This bark was 
probably used as storage packing material. 

A corner notched projectile point was found on 
the ground at the cavity entrance. This well-made 
projectile point is 3.5 cm in length and is manufac- 
tured from a fine gray chert material. No other 
artifacts were observed in the site area. 

Condition and Recommendation: The storage area 
is in stable and undisturbed condition. Only a shal- 
low layer of fill exists within the cavity. This site is 
located in an secluded and rather inaccessible area. 
No management actions are recommended. 



197 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Lower cliff 



5L 

O^ 



Acoma Red ^^ >> 
sherd cluster 



Low ledge 


\ 


Feal,-,-.-^ 




.'■".■A-^^s-e 






/ 


Gobernador Polychrome 
sherd 



Figure 83. LA 77867: Goberndor Phase hearth and ceramic-lithic scatter, 
Crow Canyon Complex. 



198 



Chapter 9 



LA 77869 



Field Number: OCA-408-8. 

Site Type: Cliff house granary. 

Cultural-Temporal AfTlnity: Probable Navajo, 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This granary is located on the 
high upper south edge of Crow Canyon. It is a 
masonry room constructed within a rockshelter on 
the upper ledge of the canyon wall. The site is 
located 225 m southwest of Crow Canyon Pueblito 
and is probably associated with the pueblito occu- 
pation. 

Description (Figure 84): This site consists of a sin- 
gle masonry room constructed with a rockshelter on 
the high south rim of Crow Canyon. The structure 
has an interior dimension of 5 x 2 m and a height of 
1.25 m. The walls are 20 cm thick and are con- 
structed of sandstone blocks, 10-20 cm in size and 
laid with adobe mortar. An entryway with a sand- 
stone slab jamb is present in the north wall. Two 
wood pegs are present in the interior upper wall in 
the northwest corner. The granary contains 10- 
20 cm of fill on a bedrock floor. 

Condition and Recommendations: This structure is 
in good condition and remains intact except for a 
collapsed section of the front north wall. There is no 
evidence of looting. The site is well concealed and 
receives little visitation. No management actions are 
recommended. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were observed in the site 
area. 



LA 77870 



Field Number: ()CA-408-9. 

Site Type: Cliff house granary. 

Cultural-Temporal AfTinity: Probable Navajo, 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located in a 
rockshelter on a high ledge near the south rim of 



Crow Canyon. There is a high cliff below the ledge 
and access to the granary is across the ledge from 
the north. The granary is constructed within a low 
rockshelter which faces east and is located directly 
above a lateral canyon drainage. The granary is 
located 300 m southwest of the Crow Canyon 
Pueblito. The granary is visible on the canyon rim 
from the pueblito area. 

Description (Figure 85): This site consists of a small 
masonry granary constructed in a ledge rockshelter. 
The room is 2 x 1.5 m in size and 1 m in height. Most 
of the walls have collapsed except for the north wall. 
Construction is of adobe-laid sandstone blocks, 10- 
40 cm in size. The walls are 20 cm thick. Fill in the 
unit is estimated to be 10-20 cm in depth and to rest 
on a bedrock floor. 

Condition and Recommendations: The walls of this 
structure have collapsed; however, the unit is in 
stable condition otherwise, undisturbed, and pro- 
tected by the rockshelter. No management actions 
are recommended. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were observed in the site. 

LA 77871 

Field Number: OCA-408-10. 

Site Type: Habitation, storage, and sweat lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the 
upper southern bench of Crow Canyon, 200 m south 
from and 60 m above the canyon floor. The site is 
placed on the crest of a north- south trending ridge 
approximately 100 m east from and in full view of the 
Crow Canyon Pueblito. The location is exposed and 
visibility from the site area is expansive. 

Description (Figure 86): This site consists of two 
forkslick hogans, a storage pit, two middens and a 
nearby sweat lodge discard pile. These features are 
located within an area 40 x 30 m in size. 

The forkslick structures (Features 1 and 2) are 
defined by circular alignments of sandstone block 
3 m in diameter. These stones appear to have been 



199 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




200 



Chapter 9 




Figure 85. LA 77870: Cliff house granary, Crow Canyon Complex. 



201 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Sweat lodge ~~Jo o ° 



N 




Figure 86. LA 77871: Goberndor Phase habitation, storage, and sweat lodge, 
Crow Canyon Complex. 



202 



Chapter 9 



a low basal ring for log forkstick hogans. The esti- 
mated original height of this masonry base is 25 cm. 
Fill within the rooms is 10-20 cm in depth. 

A bell-shaped storage pit is located 10 m south of 
the hogans. The roof of this pit has recently col- 
lapsed into an open pit, 2 m in depth and 2 m in basal 
diameter. The walls are smoothed clay. About 
50 cm of fill remains within the pit. 

Two midden scatters exist on the ridge slopes 
below the rooms. Midden 1 is north of the hogan 
features and extends over an area 5 x 5 m in size. 
Midden 2 is located on the ridge slope below and 
east of the hogans and extends over an area 20 x 20 m 
in size. The midden areas are defined by charcoal- 
stained soil and artifact concentrations. These mid- 
dens are estimated to have a depth of 10 cm. 

There is a pile of burned sandstone blocks on the 
lower slope, about 10 m north of Midden 2, which is 
a probable sweat lodge discard pile. The mound is 
3 m in diameter and 50 cm in elevation. Burned 
sandstone blocks, 10-30 cm in size, comprise the 
mound. There is no evidence of the lodge structure. 
This sweat lodge site is located on the lower east 
slope of the ridge and cannot be seen from the area 
of the Crow Canyon Pueblito. 

Condition and Recommendations: The hogans, 
middens, and sweat lodge area are in stable and 
undisturbed condition and require no specific man- 
agement action. The roof of the bell-shaped storage 
pit, however, has recently collapsed into an open 
structure. Any possible contents of the pit in the 
lower fill are now exposed to the elements. Artifacts 
and burials are often found in these pit structures. 
Testing and backfilling of this pit structure are rec- 
ommended before it is vandalized. 



lar debris of gray quartzite material are most com- 
mon. A single core and a retouched angular debris 
fragment of black chalcedony, a single obsidian 
fiake, and one quartzite pecking stone were also 
found. No groundstone materials were found. 

LA 77872 

Field Number: OCA-428-11. 

Site Type: Anasazi hearth and activity area. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Basketmaker 
III, Sambrito or Rosa Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located at the base 
of the lower south talus slope in Crow Canyon. It is 
situated on a low ridge directly adjacent to the can- 
yon floor. The rocky talus slope of the lower canyon 
is located directly south of the site. The sage fiats in 
the canyon fioor extend to the north. 

Description (Figure 87): This site is a concentration 
of Baskclmaker III artifacts and hearth debris in an 
area 25 x 25 m in size. There are three areas in the 
site (Features 1-3) which contain concentrations of 
firecracked rock and charcoal-stained soil. These 
hearths and the area of highest artifact density are 
located on the north end of the ridge in an area 20 x 
8 m in size. Above the hearths on the ridge slope is 
a light scatter of chipped stone. 

Each hearth is about 3 x 5 m in size. The charcoal- 
laden sediments are estimated to be 10-20 cm in 
depth. Ceramic artifacts are most common in Fea- 
ture 3. Traces of ceramic material were observed in 
Feature 2 and none were found in Feature 1. 



Artifacts: Chipped stone and ceramics appear in 
moderate densities and are concentrated in the mid- 
dens. Traces of bone were found and a single 12-row 
corn cob was found in a nearby packrat nest. 

A sample of 64 sherds from the two middens was 
inventoried. Dinetah Gray (66%) and Gobernador 
Polychrome (34%) comprise the sample (Table 58). 
Most of the Dinetah material (86% of the utility 
sample) is smoothed. No intrusive historic Pucbloan 
material is present. 

A total of 17 lithic artifacts was observed (Table 
59). Most were found in the Midden 2 scatter on the 
slope east of the hogan structures. Flakes and angu- 



Table 58. Crow Canyon (LA 77871) ceramic 


frequencies 








Ceramic ware- 


•type 


Midden 1 


Midden 2 Total 


Dinctah (Jray 








Smoothed 




12 


33 45 


Slrialcd 




2 


2 4 


(jobcrnador 








Polychrome 




2 


13 15 


Total 




16 


48 64 



203 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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204 



Chapter 9 



i 



Sage flat 




Figure 87. LA 77872: Anasazi hearth and activity area, Crow Canyon Complex. 



205 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



This site is estimated to be a Basketmaker III 
Sambrito or Rosa Phase hearth and processing area. 
No habitation structures appear to be present. It is 
possible that the site was a processing area for a 
nearby agricultural field. Arroyos from the south 
canyon slope wash out onto the canyon floor here 
and are likely garden areas. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: Only traces of Rosa Gray and Rosa 
Brown material were observed. This contrasts with 
an abundance of chipped stone. The relative ab- 
sence of ceramics suggests that it was a special func- 
tion area which did not require the frequent use of 
ceramic vessels, or that the site is an early Sambrito 
Phase component and was used early in the era when 
ceramic production was still infrequent. The ce- 
ramic materials found at the site include 11 Rosa 
Plain Gray sherds, 1 Rosa Brown sherd, and 1 Rosa 
Gray Polished sherd with traces of red fugitive paint. 
A sample of 22 lithic artifacts from a total of an 
estimated 100-200 surface items was selected in this 
inventory (Table 60). Flakes of gray quartzite mate- 
rial are predominant. None are retouched. Minor 
quantities of silicified wood are also present. Two 
cores, one of quartzite and the other of silicified 
wood, and a single quartzite pecking stone were also 
found. Groundstone artifacts observed in the site 
include one one-hand mano, one two-hand mano 
and one trough metate fragment. 

LA 77880 

Field Number: OCA-428-20. 

Site Type: Forkstick habitation area. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the only 
major bench in this area of Crow Canyon's south 
slope. The site is located 300 m south from and 80 m 
above Crow Canyon Wash. The site is placed on a 
sage fiat, in a sandy area, approximately 350 m west 
of the Crow Canyon Pueblito. 



Description (Hgure 88): This site consists of two 
probable forkstick hogans, a concentration of slabs 
and an adjacent midden, all within an area 40 x 20 m 
in size. The forkstick structures are defined by two 
crescentic sandstone block alignments built adja- 
cent to a few large boulders. These alignments are 
probable basal stones for forkstick structures that 
were 3 m in diameter. These basal stones were 
probably placed on the slope above the structures to 
defied runoff. Fill within the structures is estimated 
to be 10-20 cm in depth. 

A concentration of sandstone slabs and a small 
midden, 5 m in diameter, are located 15 m southwest 
of the hogans. These represent either an activity 
area or another forkstick hogan which did not have 
a basal stone ring. There is some unburned sand- 
stone in a 1 m area. 

The deep soils in this site would have been suit- 
able for the construction of undercut storage pits 
similar to those found in nearby LA 77871. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. The site is lo- 
cated about 75 m west of the study area, but is 
included here since it was probably part of the Crow 
Canyon Pueblito Complex. No management actions 
are recommended. 

Artifacts: Dinetah Gray, Gobernador Polychrome, 
and chipped stone artifacts were observed in the site 
area. No samples were examined at this location. 



LA 77883 



Field Number: OCA-428-23. 



Site Type: Forkstick hogan habitation. 



Cultural-Temporal Atfinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on a low 
bench on the south side of Crow Canyon. The site 
is 100 m south of Crow Canyon Wash, 20 m above 
the canyon floor, and approximately 400 m east of 
Crow Canyon Pueblito. A steep talus slope extends 
above the site to the lower cliff wall. A boulder 
strewn slope extends along the bench slope below 
the site to the canyon floor. 



206 



Chapter 9 





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207 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




208 



Chapter 9 



Description (Figure 89): This site consists of three 
hogan rings and a midden scatter, all within an area 
20 X 20 m in size. The three forkstick hogan struc- 
tures are defined by circular alignments of sand- 
stone blocks 20-30 cm in size. One unit (Feature 1) 
is 3 m in diameter and has an appended masonry box 
1 m X 50 cm in size. Another partial ring, disturbed 
by erosion, exists in the west site area. A small 
structure (Feature 3), defined by an alignment of 
stones 1.5 m in diameter, is built against a large 
boulder in the south site area. Artifacts are lightly 
scattered throughout the site, but are concentrated 
in a midden scatter 10 x 5 m in size. This midden is 
shallow (10 cm maximum depth) and eroded. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sub- 
ject to surface erosion, but is otherwise undisturbed. 
The Feature 2 forkstick structure and midden scat- 
ter are both somewhat eroded. No actions for man- 
agement are presently recommended. 

Artifacts: Ceramic artifacts are the most abundant 
cultural materials at this site, although some chipped 
stone and traces of bone were also observed. Most 
of the ceramics found were Dinetah Gray materials. 
Dinetah Gray Smoothed (27 sherds), Dinetah Gray 
Striated (11 sherds), and Gobernador Polychrome 
(2 sherds) types are present. 

No lithic sample was recorded for this site. 



Crow Canyon Complex 
Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. 1: Two Ncckbanded Rosa Gray sherds and 
a few flakes were found on a bench top in the western 
survey area about 300 m west of the Crow Canyon 
Pueblito. No structural features or cultural sedi- 
ments were observed. This locality is a probable 
Rosa Phase activity area. 

lO No. 2: A basin metate, broken into seven frag- 
ments, was found on the bench top about 200 m east 
of the Crow Canyon Pueblito. This metate is located 
in a sandy area below a slickrock ledge. It is slab of 
coarse brown sandstone 50 cm in length. 

lO No. 3: Four sherds of a Rio Grande Glazeware 
bowl were found on the bench about 50 m from the 
sweat lodge, LA 77866. This vessel is Glaze F Cicuye 
Glaze Polychrome. It is tempered with sandstone 
and was probably manufactured in the Pecos area. 
The vessel has a glaze-on-red interior surface and a 
glaze polychrome-on-white slipped exterior surface. 
This is an isolated pot drop. Only minor quantities 
of Rio Grande Glazeware have been found in the 
Dinetah District south of the San Juan River (Mar- 
shall 1985:163), as most of the pueblito sites were 
occupied after the demise of glazeware production. 
No other glazewares have been found in the Crow 
Canyon survey area. 

lO No. 4: A cluster of 50 Dinetah Plain Smoothed 
sherds from a single vessel were found on the talus 
slope above the upper bench in the eastern survey 
area. The location is about 50 m south of the LA 
77866 sweat lodge. This is a pot drop locality since 
no other features were observed in the area. 



209 



Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



N 




^ 



Bench 



Fea 1 
Forkstick 



Slab box ^ 



>o% 



O <? 



O O 

\ 

Fea 2 

Possible structure 




Fea 3 j' ^ 

Boulder unit o^ 




Talus 



Figure 89. LA 77883: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan, Crow Canyon Complex. 



210 



Chapter 1 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
Pueblito Complex 



The Hadlock's Crow Canyon study area is an 
80-acre tract located at the confluence of Crow Can- 
yon and Canon Largo, approximately 16 miles south 
of the San Juan River. The study area, which sur- 
rounds Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito, is located 
at the entrance to Crow Canyon and extends across 
the canyon floor and up onto the north and south 
walls of the canyon (see figure 77). The east bound- 
ary of the study area is the Rio Arriba-San Juan 
County line, but one site located 100 m further east 
was documented. The survey area is approximately 
800 X 450 m in size and includes sections of the 
canyon floor, north and south benchland, steep talus 
slopes, and cliffs. Elevation in the study area ranges 
from 5980 ft on the canyon floor to 6500 ft at the 
south canyon rim. A piiion-juniper forest appears 
on the canyon slopes. The benchlands foster sage- 
brush and there are thickets of greasewood in the 
canyon floor, while chamisa and tamarisk line Crow 
Canyon Wash. Permanent water flow is present in 
Largo Wash approximately 800 m west of the study 
area. 

Table 61 lists the sites found in the study area. 
These include six Navajo Gobernador Phase com- 
ponents, the famous Crow Canyon rock art site with 
both Anasazi and Gobernador Phase elements, one 
Anasazi hearth complex, and a rock corral and 
house occupied in the late ninteenth-early twentieth 
century. 

It is probable that most of the sites in the 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex are within the 
survey area. Mo.st of the structural sites associated 
with the pueblo are located on the south canyon 
point within 200 m of the pueblito. The extensive 
Crow Canyon rock art site (LA 77874), is located at 
the cliff ba.se 400 m north of the pueblito. This site, 
like many of the more extensive rock art sites in the 
Dinetah, is located at the confluence of major can- 
yons. The Crow Canyon rock art probably docs not 
associate only with Hadlock's Pueblito as it no doubt 
functioned as a ceremonial site for Ciobernador 



Phase populations in the entire area. The Crow 
Canyon rock art site continues along the cliff base 
east of the study area, and an additional forkstick 
structure was found on a bench above this eastern 
rock art (Hadlock 1971, Site No. 6). 

The Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex, as now 
defined, includes the masonry pueblito and six asso- 
ciated Gobernador Phase sites (Figure 90). The 
pueblito consists of a one-and-one-half or two-story 
roomblock with two associated middens, three 
hearths, a boulder top unit, and a nearby cliff ledge 
corral. Other Gobernador Phase sites in the com- 
plex include 10 forkstick hogans, 6 middens, 1 wall- 
sheller construction, a boulder room, a single sweat 
lodge, and several panels of rock art. Other Gobern- 
ador Phase localities found in the study area include 
2 small scatters of Dinetah Gray, 1 isolated petro- 
glyph, and 1 small scatter of Dinetah Gray and 
Gobernador material. 

The Anasazi sites encountered in the study area 
include a rather large complex of Sambrito or Rosa 
Phase hearths located on the north canyon bench 
and numerous Rosa-style petroglyh elements in the 
rock art panels. Additional Rosa-style glyphs are 
known along the north cliff base east of the study 
area. A site with two Anasazi pithouses is also re- 
ported on a north bench approximately 300 m east 
of the study area (Hadlock 1971, Site No. 6). 

Two additional sites of late ninteenth and twenti- 
eth century affiliation are also present in the study 
area. These are a small corral built among a group 
of boulders and a house said to have been occupied 
by Mr. Paul Smith circa 1930-1940. 

All of the sites found in this study area are located 
within the Crow Canyon Archeological District. 
This District is listed on the State Register of Cul- 
tural Properties and on the National Register of 
Historic Places. The only sites previously docu- 
mented in the Hadlock's Crow Canyon study area 
include the pueblito (LA 50830) and the extensive 
pclrogiyph complex described by Hadlock (1971). 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Connplex 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
Pueblito LA 55830 

Field Number: OCA-428-18. 

Site Name: Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. 

Site Type: Pueblito. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Previous References: 

Hadlock (1971). 

Powers and Johnson (1987:97-98). 



Location-Situation: This pueblito is located on the 
south side of Crow Canyon, near its confluence with 
Caiion Largo. It is on a low ridge on the lowest 
canyon bench, about one-fourth up the south wall of 
the canyon. The pueblito is visible from the canyon 
floor and is directly opposite and in full view of the 
Crow Canyon petroglyph panels. 

Description (Plate 14, Figure 91): This site consists 
of a masonry pueblito, two associated midden areas, 
a corral enclosure, three hearths and a small boul- 
der-overhang unit. These features appear in an area 
140 m east-west by 75 m north-south. Other 
forkstick habitation sites (LA 77877 and LA 77878) 
are located within 100 m and are probably associated 
with the pueblito occupation. 



Table 61. Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Immediate Complex (LA 50830) 

Size: 140 x75 m 

• Linear pueblito roomblock, three rooms, two story elevation. 

• Two middens on slope below roomblock. 

• Three hearths. 

• One boulder room unit. 

• Cliff ledge corral enclosure. 

Greater Complex 

Size: 800 x450 m 

• Extensive rock art site (LA 77874). 

• Four unit forkstick hogan site with midden scatter (LA 77877). 

• Five unit forkstick hogan site with walled area and middens (LA 77878). 

• Single unit forkstick hogan site (LA 77879). 

• Single boulder room with scatter (LA 77881). 

• Sweat lodge (LA 77882). 

Anasazi Sites 

• Sambrito or Rosa Phase hearth complex (LA 77876). 

• Sambrito or Rosa Phase rock art site (early component LA 77874). 

Modern Historic Site, Late 19th-Early 20tli Century 

• Rock corral enclosure (LA 77873). 

• Historic house (LA 77875). 



212 



Chapter 10 




Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 

Sketch map 450m E-W k 800m N-S 



Figure 90. Schematic map of the Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



213 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Connplex 




Plate 14. Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. 



The pueblito is a linear roomblock, 16 x 4 m in 
size, containing three large rooms. The roomblock 
was built on the crest of a low ridge which elevates 
and magnifies the edifice. There is a large quantity 
of masonry rubble and the mound elevation is 2 m. 
This suggests that the building was either a two-story 
construction or a single-story house with an upper 
parapet. The two-story facade of the pueblito and 
its location on the ridge crest presented, no doubt, a 
formidable appearance. The location is not espe- 
cially fortified, but the architecture does appear to 
be defensive. Sandstone blocks and slabs 20-50 cm 
in size were used in construction. Vertical juniper 
posts incorporated into the corner walls of the south 
room help to support the roof. 

Artifacts are scattered over a 50 x 60 m area 
surrounding the pueblito. There are two middens 
on the north slope below the pueblito. These mid- 
dens are defined by concentrations of artifact mate- 
rial and by charcoal-laden sediments 10-20 cm in 
depth. Midden 1 is 16 x 10 m in size and Midden 2 is 



12 X 10 m in size. 

A small corral is present on a cliff top ledge about 
70 m northwest of the pueblito. An area of the ledge, 
10 X 16 m in size, is closed off by a low stacked rock 
wall. The cliff edge and the upper ledge form much 
of the enclosure. This type of cliff edge corral has 
been found elsewhere in the Dinetah District and 
similar corrals are known near Shaft House at site 
LA 71576 and on a cliff ledge below Star Rock 
Pueblito. 

Three hearths are located on a steep slope 55 m 
east of the pueblito. One is an ash stain 1 m in 
diameter, another is defined by a concentration of 
burned stones, and yet another is a slab box, 1 x 1.5 m 
in size. A small room constructed under an over- 
hanging boulder is also present 45 m east of the 
pueblito. 

Hadlock (1971) describes a possible forkstick 
structure on the slope below the pueblito. This was 
not relocated and it is probable that the location is 
one of the midden areas. 



214 



Chapter 10 



Ledge corral 



4m high ledger 



f 
} { 



r 



^ 



^ 



Entrance'"^ 
to corral area 



o^ 



Scatter limits 




Hearth or small 



Pueblito cross-section A - A' 



Figure 91. LA 55830: Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. 



215 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Condition and Recommendations: Each of the 
three rooms in the puebHto have pot holes which 
were dug before 1971. This looting activity appears 
to be limited to the upper sediments and probably 
did not reach the lower floor fill. Other than this 
looting, the pueblito site is in good and stable condi- 
tion, but should be regularly monitored. Tree-ring 
samples should be taken from the vertical posts in 
the south room as this pueblito has not been dated. 

Artifacts: The ceramic and lithic artifacts observed 
at the site are listed in the tables that follow. One 
fragment of burned bone was found in each midden. 

Ceramics samples taken from both middens con- 
tained Dinetah Gray and Gobernador Polychrome 
materials. No intrusive Puebloan ceramics were 
found at the site. Most of the Dinetah Gray present 
has a smoothed exterior surface (98% of the utility 
sample), while only traces of striated material are 
present. Gobernador Polychrome materials repre- 
sent 26% of the sample (Table 62). 

A sample of 43 lithic artifacts representing all the 
surface material observed at Hadlock's Crow Can- 
yon Pueblito were tabulated (Table 63). These arti- 
facts are from both middens. Most of the chipped 
stone present is gray quartzite (54%) and silicified 
wood (21%). Minor quantities of chalcedonic ma- 
terial and chert are present and one obsidian flake 
was found. Most of the lithic artifacts present in the 
collection are unretouched flakes. Formal artifacts 
in the collection include one retouched chalcedony 
flake, one chert biface, two quartzite pecking stones, 
one quartzite chopper, and one quartzite ham- 
merstone. No groundstone material was found, al- 
though in 1971 Hadlock found a slab metate and a 
two-hand mano in the bank of the small arroyo 
directly below the pueblito. 



LA 77873 



Table 62. Hadlock" 
(LA 55830) ceramic 


s Crow Canyon Pueblito 
frequencies 


Ceramic ware- 


type 


Midden 1 Midden 2 Total 


Dinetah Gray 

Smoothed 

Striated 

Gobernador 

Polychrome 




92 25 117 

2 - 2 

33 9 42 


Total 




127 34 161 



Field Number: OCA-428-12. 

Site Type: Corral. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Historic unknown. A 
timber placed under one of the corral walls is in good 
condition suggesting that the corral is of late 
ninteenth or early twentieth century affinity. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the east 
margin of Canon Largo near the south entrance to 
Crow Canyon. The site is 150 m south of Crow 
Canyon Wash and 800 m east of Cafion Largo Wash. 
The site is located among a group of large boulders 
at the base of the lower talus slope and at the margin 
of the eastern Canon Largo fioor. 

Description (Figure 92): This site consists of a small 
corral area built among a group of large boulders. 
The corral is 6 m in diameter. Large sandstone 
boulders form most of the corral walls. Short 
stacked rock walls close two areas between boul- 
ders. One wall segment rests upon a horizontal 
timber. The west side of the corral toward the can- 
yon floor is open and may have been closed with 
brush or deadwood. No other features are present 
and no artifacts were observed. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

LA 77874 

Field Number: OCA-428-13. 

Site Type: Rock art panels. 

Cultural-Temporal AHlnity: Rosa Basketmaker III 
and Navajo Gobernador Phase. 

Previous References: 

Hadlock (1971). 

Schaafsma (1980:315, 317 and Figures 253, 254, 
260 and 261). 



216 



Chapter 10 





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217 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 





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218 



Chapter 10 



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Figure 92. LA ll^lZ: Historic corral, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



219 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Location-Situation: This site complex is located at 
the entrance to Crow Canyon. The glyphs are lo- 
cated on the lower north cliff face with exposures to 
the south, southeast, and east and extend from the 
entrance of Crow Canyon 500 m to the northeast. 

Description (Plate 15): This is the well-known Crow 
Canyon petroglyph site and, like many other rock art 
sites in the Dinetah District, is located at a major 
canyon confluence. The site extends along the cliffs 
for a distance of 700 m. Other rock art panels are 
known to exist on the lower north cliffs 200 m to the 
east and outside the present study area. Numerous 
panels of both Anasazi Rosa Phase and Navajo 
Gobernador Phase affinity are present. 

Twenty panels were identified in this survey and 
a complete photographic inventory of the glyphs was 
made. Many of the panels are located near the 
ground surface and appear to be partially buried by 
alluvial sediments. No associated artifacts or other 
features were observed in the site area. 

The Gobernador Phase iconographies suggest 
that this site was an important sacred site. The 
Navajo humpbacked God Ghann'ask'idii is repre- 
sented in three panel areas. Numerous hour-glass 
forms, said to represent the Navajo Twin War God 
"Born of Water" are also present. A representation 
of the Female God of the Night Chant was identified 
at the site by Schaafsma (1980:318). Numerous Yei 
figures which represent a variety of mythic person- 
ages also occur. Other Navajo glyphs include corn 
plants, recurved bow forms, animal tracks, men on 
horseback, horned hominoid figures, birds, feather 
motifs, terrace forms, bird tracks, sun figures, hand 
and foot forms and various geometries. 

Rosa Phase glyphs include a variety of birds and 
quadrapeds, multiple "Rosa doll" forms, and hom- 
inoid forms with snake lines extending from the 
head. Some graffitti is present. Names include Can- 
delaria 1906, Nasario Gallegos Enero 15 De 1906, 
and M.C. Aragon Dec. 29, 1905. 

Condition and Recommendations: The petro- 
glyphs are generally in good condition. There is 
little graffiti and vandalism at the site. A few of the 
glyphs are faint and difficult to discern and a few 
panels are partially buried by alluvial sediments 
which have accumulated at the cliff base. It is rec- 
ommended that future study include test excavations 
to determine if buried glyphs are present. An icon- 



ographic study of the Navajo glyphs in terms of 
traditional Navajo cosmology and myth would also 
prove productive. 

Artifacts: No artifacts associated with the glyphs 
were found but much of the site is alluviated and 
scattered artifacts may be buried. 

LA 77875 

Field Number: OCA-428-14. 

Site Type: Historic house. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anglo American, 
early 20th century, circa 1930-1940. 

Location-Situation: This site is located at the lower 
north cliff base near the entrance to Crow Canyon. 
The site is located in the area of the Crow Canyon 
rock art site, 100 m north of Crow Canyon Wash and 
1 km east of Caiion Largo Wash. 

Description (Figure 93): This site consists of a sin- 
gle masonry room and a small masonry-based enclo- 
sure or pen built against the cliff base. These 
structures appear within an area 10 x 5 m in size. The 
house is a large masonry room, 4 x 4 m in size. The 
walls are constructed of large sandstone blocks and 
stand to a maximum elevation of 2 m. The entry in 
the south wall has collapsed. Four forkstick corner 
posts built into the walls helped to support the roof. 
A number of large cottonwood vigas from the col- 
lapsed roof are stacked in the room. Both ax- and 
saw-cut cottonwood beams are present. 

A right angle alignment of stones, 2 m west of the 
room, is a probable masonry-based enclosure or 
pen. This structure is 2 x 2 m in size and is built 
against the cliff base and is a probable storage area 
or animal pen. 

Remarks: Personal communication with Mr. J. 
Kaime, a local rancher, revealed that the house was 
occupied by a Mr. Paul Smith. Mr. Kaime recalls 
that during his youth that the house was occupied by 
Mr. Smith. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is in 
stable and undisturbed condition. The front wall of 
the house has collapsed but other standing walls 



220 



Chapteno 




221 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Connplex 



Pen area -^^ Q 



Vertical forked posts 




Large cottonwood vigas 



N 

to 



Figure 93. LA 77875: Historic house, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



222 



Chapter 10 



appear to be stable. There is no evidence of vandal- 
ism and no management actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: There is a diffuse scatter of modern tin 
cans and white bottle glass in the site area. Some of 
this material may, however, be associated with visi- 
tation to the petroglyphs. 

LA 77876 

Field Number: OCA-428-15. 

Site Type: Hearth complex. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Anasazi Basketmaker 
III Sambrito or Rosa Phase. Traces of Gobernador 
Polychrome were found in the site area, but no 
emphasis on early Navajo occupation could be iden- 
tified. It is possible that the Gobernador material is 
from the nearby rock art site. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the first 
canyon bench on the north side of Crow Canyon at 
its entrance to Caiion Largo, directly above the ex- 
tensive Rosa and Gobernador Phase rock art site. 
This flat bench is directly above the lower cliff and 
below the steep upper talus slope. The location is 
open and exposed. 

Description (Figure 94): This site consists of a se- 
ries of scattered hearth features with associated ce- 
ramic and lithic artifacts. The site extends over an 
area 100 m northeast-southwest by 50 m northwest- 
southeast. There are four concentrations of cultural 
material and charcoal-laden sediment. A light scat- 
ter of artifacts occurs in the intervening areas. No 
structural features, other than hearths, are evident 
in the site. 

Feature 1 is a 30 x 15 m area of scattered hearth 
debris and artifacts. There are five concentrations 
of firecracked rock. The firecracked rocks are sand- 
stone blocks 5-10 cm in size. Charcoal-laden sedi- 
ments 10-20 cm in depth are present. Artifacts 
observed in Feature 1 include Rosa Brown and Rosa 
Gray ceramics and chipped stone. Ceramic density 
is 20 sherds per square meter and lithic density is 3 
flakes per square meter. 



The other features in the site are similar to Fea- 
ture 1 and are defined by concentrations of lithic and 
ceramic artifacts and firecracked rock in areas of 
charcoal-laden sediment. Cultural sediments are 
10-20 cm in depth. Features 2 and 3 are 8 x 5 m in 
size and Feature 4 is 5 m in diameter. 

This site is a rather extensive Anasazi hearth com- 
plex with an estimated 20 hearths present. The 
abundance of ceramic and lithic material and char- 
coal-laden sediment at the sites indicates extended 
or repetitive site use. The site appears to be some 
type of processing area as there is no evidence of 
habitation structures. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is ex- 
posed to sheet wash erosion which has scattered 
much of the cultural sediment and hearth debris. 
Shallow cultural sediments do, however, exist in the 
site area. Despite this erosion, the site is in stable 
and undisturbed condition. No management ac- 
tions are presently recommended. 

Artifacts: This site contains an abundance of lithic 
and ceramic material. An estimated 1000 surface 
artifacts are present. Ceramic density in the features 
ranges from 10 to 20 sherds per square meter. 
Chipped stone materials range from 2 to 5 pieces per 
square meter. Occasional pieces of groundstone are 
also present. Ceramic density at this site is high, in 
comparison to the moderate lithic densities. This 
conslrasts to the Rosa Phase hearth (LA 77872) 
found in the Crow Canyon survey area, where lithic 
densities are high and ceramic densities are low. 

Rosa Gray and occasional Rosa Brown Plain ce- 
ramics were observed. No decorated material was 
found. There appears to be vessel clustering in cer- 
tain areas. The ceramic assemblage from this site 
indicates a Basketmaker III Sambrito or Rosa Phase 
occupation. 

A sample of 18 lithic artifacts was examined 
(Table 64). Most of the materials are flakes and 
angular debris of gray quartzite and chalcedonic 
material. Lesser quantities of chert, silicificd wood, 
and obsidian are also present. A single obsidian 
biface is the only retouched tool in the sample, 
(iroundstone artifacts include a one-hand mano, a 
two-hand mano, and one slab metate fragment. 



223 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 




Figure 94. LA 77876: Anasazi hearths, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



224 



Chapter 10 






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225 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



LA 77877 



Field Number: OCA-428-16. 

Site Type: Forkstick hogan. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on a high 
narrow bench point on the south canyon wall at the 
entrance to Crow Canyon. The site is 400 m south 
from and 115 m above Crow Canyon Wash. The site 
is about half-way up the steep canyon wall, in a high 
and fortified position and visibiHty from the site is 
extensive. The site towers above and looks down on 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito which is located 
125 m to the north. 

Description (Figure 95): This site is a Gobernador 
Phase habitation containing four forkstick hogans, 
two rock alignments, and a scatter of artifacts. The 
site extends over an area 40 x 20 m in size. 

The forkstick hogans (Features 1, 2, 3 and 4) are 
defined by circular alignments of sandstone blocks. 
These basal alignments are composed of sandstone 
blocks 20-40 cm in size. None of the stones are 
burned. The hogan rings range from 2-4.5 m in size. 
Fill in these rooms ranges from 10-50 cm in depth. 
Hogan Features 1 and 2 are covered on the upper 
south side by alluvium from the adjacent talus slope. 

Feature 5 is a small 2 x 2 m enclosure. It is a single 
rock alignment built between two boulders. Feature 
6 is 1.5 m long linear rock alignment. A midden 
scatter, containing ceramics, chipped and 
groundstone, and occasional burned sandstone 
spalls appears on the slopes below the structures. 
This midden scatter appears to be surfacial. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sta- 
ble and undisturbed. This site is no doubt associated 
with Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. It has excel- 
lent research potential and should be monitored to 
ensure continued preservation. Otherwise, no man- 
agement actions are presently recommended. 

Artifacts: Artifacts observed in the site area include 
50 sherds, 18 chipped stone items, and a few pieces 
of groundstone. Part of a metate is present adjacent 
to hogan Feature 2. 



Ceramics present at this site include Dinetah 
Plain Smoothed (22 sherds) and Gobernador Poly- 
chrome (28 sherds) vessels. There is some vessel 
clustering. An estimated 5 Dinetah Plain Smoothed 
vessels are present in the sample. Both thin- and 
thick-walled Dinetah vessels are present but there is 
no Dinetah material with striated surface treatment 
nor are there any intrusive Puebloan ceramics. Both 
bowls and jars of Gobernador Polychrome occur. 

The entire collection from this site, a total of 20 
lithics, was inventoried (Table 65). The chipped 
stone assemblage from this site is characterized by a 
diversity of material types. The low incidence of gray 
quartzite is this collection and in the collection from 
nearby (LA 77878) is atypical of the Gobernador 
Phase sites in the Crow Canyon area. Instead, silic- 
ified wood, obsidian, and chalcedonic materials are 
most common. Most of the artifacts found at the site 
are unretouched flakes, although one retouched ob- 
sidian flake, and one obsidian drill are present. 
Other lithic artifacts include a gray quartzite peck- 
ing stone and two slab metate fragments. 

LA 77878 



Field Number: OCA-428-17. 
Site Type: Forkstick hogan. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: 

Phase, 18th century. 



Navajo, Gobernador 



Location-Situation: This site is located on a narrow 
bench and ridge point on the south slope of Crow 
Canyon near the Caiion Largo confluence. The site 
is located approximately 100 m southeast of 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. A low 2 m high 
ledge sits below the site and steep boulder strewn 
slopes are above it to the south. 

Description (Figure 96): This site is a Gobernador 
Phase habitation which contains five forkstick ho- 
gans, three midden scatters, a curved wall, and an 
enclosure among a group of boulders. Most of these 
features appear in an area 70 m east-west by 30 m 
north-south. There is, however, one hogan located 
30 m to the northwest of the main site complex. 

There are five hogan rings in the site. Each struc- 
ture is defined by ring alignments of sandstone 
blocks which are 10-30 cm in size and are basal 



226 



Chapter 10 




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227 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



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229 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



borders for forkstick constructions. The structures 
are 3 m in diameter. All arc placed on small flat 
areas to avoid runoff. Ceramic and lithic artifacts 
are scattered on the slopes below the rooms and arc 
most dense in direct proximity to the hogans. 

There is a curved wall, 15 m long, in the east site 
area. It is built on the north end and slope of a small 
ridge. Some of the stones used in the wall are large 
(1 m) upright slabs. Wall rubble below the feature 
suggests an original wall height of about 1 m. The 
area above and adjacent to the wall has filled with 
alluvium. There is a scatter of artifacts and a thin 
mantle of charcoal-stained soil below the wall, in a 
12 X 8 m area, which is designated as Midden 1. This 
wall is perhaps a shelter wind break. The wall does 
not appear to be a defensive structure. Above the 
wall there is a cluster of large boulders. The rocks 
are partially enclosed by a stacked rock wall forming 
a small enclosure 2 x 2 m in size. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is sub- 
ject to minor erosion, but is otherwise in stable and 
undisturbed condition. It has considerable research 
potential and should be monitored at the same time 
as the nearby pueblito. No other management ac- 
tions are recommended. 



Striated surfaces are rare (5%). The ceramic assem- 
blage from Midden 1, below the wall, differs consid- 
erably from the assemblage found below the hogans 
in Midden 2. The sample below the wall is domi- 
nated by Dinetah Gray (92% of the sample) with 
only traces of Gobernador Polychronie(4%). The 
midden adjacent to the structure, in contrast, has 
much more Gobernador Polychrome (30%). This 
spatial difference in utility and service ware frequen- 
cies within the site probably relates to some type of 
functional differentiation. Perhaps the area en- 
closed by the curved wall was a communal culinary 
work space. 

A sample of 30 lithics which represent the entire 
collection from the Midden 1 and 2 areas was inven- 
toried (Table 67). Most of the Hthic artifacts in the 
collection are unretouched flakes of chalcedony 
(46.6%), silicified wood, quartzite, and chert. There 
is, in comparison with the Crow Canyon Complex, a 
rather low incidence of gray quartizitc material 
(20%). A sample of 20 artifacts was identified from 
Midden 2 adjacent to the hogan structures, and 10 
artifacts were found in the Midden 1 scatter below 
the wail. A quartzite pecking stone and 2 retouched 
silicified wood flakes were found in Midden 1 and 1 
two-hand mano was found in Midden 2. 



Artifacts: Ceramic and lithic artifacts appear in 
concentrations adjacent to and below the hogans 
and on the slope below the curved wall. 

Ceramics found include Dinetah Gray, Gobern- 
ador Polchrome, and traces of Tewa Series material 
(Table 66). Most of the Dinetah Gray (95% of the 
utility ware sample) has a smoothed exterior surface. 



LA 77879 



Field Number: OCA-428-19. 

Site Type: Single unit forkstick habitation. 

Cultural-Temporal AfTmity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 



Table 66. Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
(LA 77878) ceramic frequencies 

Ceramic ware-type Midden 1 Midden 2 Total 



Dinetah Gray 








Smoothed 


58 


60 


118 


Striated 


4 


1 


5 


Gobernador 


3 


30 


33 


Polychrome 








Tewa Series 


2 


- 


2 


Total 


67 


91 


158 



Location-Situation: This site is located on the crest 
of a narrow ridge on the south slope of Crow Can- 
yon. The ridge is situated above the lower canyon 
bench and is approximately 200 m south from and 
30 m above Crow Canyon Wash. The site is 300 m 
northeast of Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito and 
approximately 100 m east of the Rio Arriba-San 
Juan County line. 

Description (Figure 97): This site consists of a sin- 
gle forkstick structure and a light scatter of associ- 
ated artifacts which exist in an area 10 x 5 m. A 
circular alignment of sandstone blocks, 3 m in diam- 
eter, is the base of the probable forkstick structure. 
Fill within the structure is estimated to be 10 cm in 



230 



Chapter 10 



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231 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Connplex 




Figure 97. LA 77879: Gobernador Phase forkstick hogan, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



232 



Chapter 10 



depth. On the slope directly below and north of the 
structure there is a scatter of Dinetah Gray sherds. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is un- 
disturbed and in stable condition. No management 
actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: A cluster of 20 Dinetah Gray Smoothed 
sherds was observed on the ridge slope adjacent to 
the hogan. No other artifacts were found. 

LA 77881 

Field Number: OCA-428-21. 

Site Type: Single unit boulder house. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, Gobernador 
Phase, 18th century. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the steep 
middle talus slope on the south side of Crow Canyon. 
The site is 200 m south and 50 m above Crow Canyon 
Wash. It is located among a group of large boulders 
on a talus slope, approximately 200 m east of 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. 

Description (Figure 98): This site consists of a sin- 
gle boulder house, a small slab box or table structure 
and a scatter of Dinetah Gray sherds, all within an 
area 20 x 20 m in size. The house was a masonry- 
based log construction which was built against two 
large sandstone boulders. A stacked rock wall foun- 
dation, estimated to have been 50 cm to 1 m high, is 
present. The upper wall and roof was apparently 
constructed of logs. A few pieces of deteriorated 
piiion are scattered within and adjacent to the room. 
The room is 4 m in diameter and is estimated to 
contain 20-30 cm of fill. 

There is a scatter of Dinetah Gray sherds on the 
slope below the room in a 15 x 15 m area. No 
additional artifacts, other than a single ham- 
merstone, were found. 

Located 4 m south of the room and adjacent to 
another large boulder there is a slab box or lablc 
structure. One large sandstone slab, 1 x 1.25 m in 
size, appears to have rested on or covered a masonry 
slab box 1 X 1 m in size. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is un- 
disturbed and in stable condition. No management 



actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: The only artifacts observed in the site 
include a scatter of 65 Dinetah Gray sherds and a 
single hammerstone. Both Smoothed (42 sherds) 
and Striated (23 sherds) Dinetah Plain vessels are 
present. The absence of Gobernador Polychrome 
at this habitation site is atypical. 

LA 77882 

Field Number: OCA-428-22. 

Site Type: Sweat Lodge. 

Cultural-Temporal Affinity: Navajo, probable 
Gobernador Phase. 

Location-Situation: This site is located on the first 
bench on the south slope of Crow Canyon. It is 
approximately 150 m south from and 25 m above 
Crow Canyon Wash. The site is placed on the west 
slope of small sandy ridge, approximately 200 m 
northeast of Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. This 
site is located on the precise boundary of Rio Arriba 
and San Juan counties. 

Description (Figure 99): This site is a sweat lodge 
which was probably associated with Hadlock's Crow 
Canyon Pueblito. The site consists of a discard pile 
of burned sandstone blocks 4 m in diameter. Stones 
from the pile are scattered on the ridge slope below 
and an ash stain is present on the south side of the 
rock mound. The stones present in the mound are 
burned sandstone blocks 5-20 cm in size. No evi- 
dence of the lodge structure is present. No artifacts 
were found in the area of the discard mound. 

A hearth, defined by an ash stain 2 m in diameter, 
is present on the bench surface 30 m northeast of the 
rock mound. A few pieces of gray quartzite chipped 
stone were found in this area. The cultural/temporal 
affinity of this hearth or an association with the sweat 
lodge area is unknown. 

Condition and Recommendations: This site is par- 
tially eroded, but is in good and stable condition. No 
management actions are recommended. 

Artifacts: No artifacts were found in proximity to 
the sweat lodge. This is typical of lodge sites in the 
Dinetah District. 



233 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



^\i Wood 
^ Boulder ^428-21 




Midden scatter 



N 



5 

I 1 I I l__J 

meters 



Figure 98. LA 77881: Gobernador Phase boulder house, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



234 



Chapter 10 




Figure 99. LA 77882: Sweat lodge, Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex. 



235 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito Complex 



Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
Isolated Occurrences 

lO No. I: A single Rosa Gray sherd was found on 
a ledge and the base of the lower cliff about 150 m 
southwest of the Hadlock Crow Canyon Pueblito. 

lO NO. 2: Three Dinetah Gray sherds were found 
under a boulder overhang about 20 m above the 
canyon floor. This locality is near the entrance to 
Crow Canyon on the south side of the canyon and 
100 m north of the puebHto. 

lO NO, 3: A very sparse scatter of Rosa Gray 
sherds was found on a low rise in the south canyon 
floor near the entrance to Crow Canyon. Fifteen 
sherds were observed in an area 50 x 25 m in size. 
Traces of fire cracked rock were also observed, but 
no structural features or cultural sediments were 
found. This locality is a probable Anasazi Baskelma- 
ker III activity area. 

lO No. 4: An isolated petroglyph was found on a 
boulder near the south side of the entrance to Crow 
Canyon. The locality is 150 m southwest of 
Hadlock's Pueblito. The glyph is very faint but ap- 
pears to be a large hominoid Navajo figure. It is 
pecked into the west face of the boulder. 

lO No. 5: A small ash stain and two Rosa Gray 
sherds were located on the canyon floor about 50 m 
northeast of Hammond Well No. 91. This hearth is 
located on the north floor of the entrance to Crow 
Canyon. 

lO No. 6: A single Rosa Brown sherd was found 
under a boulder overhang on the high second bench 



on the north side of Crow Canyon. This location is 
near the northern limit of the Hadlock's Pueblito 
survey area. 

lO No. 7: An isolated abrader stone was found on 
a high north bench of Crow Canyon. The location is 
near the mouth of Crow Canyon and on the high 
third bench of the canyon wall. The stone is 10 x 4 x 
2 cm in size and is faceted on one face. The faceted 
area has parallel striations perpendicular to the long 
axis of the stone. 

lO No. 8: A small scatter of Dinetah Gray and 
Gobcrnador Polychrome sherds was found below a 
high upper cliff ledge on the north side of Crow 
Canyon. A few scattered sherds were found on a very 
steep and loose talus slope at the base of cliff in the 
extreme northwest survey area. A rather dangerous 
climb up the cliff to the bench surface above re- 
vealed a potdrop of Dinetah sherds and two two- 
hand manos. No structural features or cultural 
sediments were observed in this area. The sherds 
found below the cliff do not appear to have eroded 
from the bench top above. The origin of these sherds 
is most likely from the cliff base area. This sleep cliff 
base and upper talus area is a rather atypical locality 
for a sherd scatter. It may have been an access route 
before the deterioration and collapse of the cliff or 
it is perhaps a scattered c^che. 

lO No. 9: This is a scatter of four Dinetah Gray 
and two Gobernador Polychrome sherds on a steep 
talus slope about 200 m south from and above 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. This is probably 
debris scattered by erosion from LA 77877 located 
on the high bench above. 



236 



Chapter 1 1 

An Evaluation of the Pueblito 
Site Complex 



Prior studies of Gobcrnador Phase Navajo 
pueblitos have focused on the pueblitos only, with 
little attention on the nearby, smaller sites, except 
for the directly associated forkslick hogans and de- 
fensive structures. This is the first study to illustrate 
the rich array of architectural remains and material 
culture in the areas around the pueblitos, and to 
demonstrate that the pueblito is only one element of 
sometimes extensive site complexes. 

A discusssion of the various site types which com- 
prise pueblito complexes is presented in the follow- 
ing notes. These discussions are limited to 
summaries of certain associated site types and to 
brief interpretations of the ceramic and lithic arti- 
facts. The scope of the BLM 1989-1990 project did 
not allow for a more comprehensive examination of 
the data. The principal objective of the project was 
to obtain information useful in the management of 
the cultural resources within the selected study 
areas. Funding limitations prevented the com- 
prehensive analysis and interpretation of the infor- 
mation obtained, but, from this data base, anlaysis 
and interpretations may proceed in conjunction with 
continued research in the Dinetah District. 



Discussion of Site Types 

A variety of site types and structural features 
comprise the typical Gobernador Phase pueblito 
complex. The structure types recognized as compo- 
nents of the Gobcrnador Phase settlements are 
listed in Table 68. The typical pueblito is a small 
masonry building built in an elevated canyon posi- 
tion. Forkstick or masonry-based hogans, hearths, 
storage areas, and middens are typically located in 
direct proximity to the pueblito. A con.stellation of 
other sites often appears within a 100 m to .SOO m 
proximity of the pueblitos. The.se sites include out- 
lying hogan settlements, storage bins and 



rockshelters, hearths and ovens, sweat lodges, cor- 
rals, and occasional rock art panels, cache sites and 
burials. Table 69 lists the frequency of feature types 
assocalcd with each complex. A brief discussion of 
site and structure types which comprise the pueblito 
complex appears in the following notes. 

Pueblitos 

The characteristics of each pueblito have been 
extensively discussed in earlier sections of this re- 
port. Table 70 summarizes statistical information 
concerning room and hogan frequencies, room 
sizes, midden volumes, and tree ring dates for each 
of the pueblito complexes. 

Hogans 

Hogans frequently appear in direct association 
with most pueblitos (Plate 16). Keur (1944:76) ob- 
served hogans with the great majority of the 26 
pueblitos she examined and it is estimated that about 
75% or more of the pueblitos documented by Pow- 
ers and Johnson ( 1 987) have these structures located 
in direct proximity to the pueblitos. Hogans are 
occasionally incorporated within the pueblito com- 
pounds (e.g., Three Corn, Old Fort, and The Wall). 
Other sites have been located, such as Cottonwood 
Divide and Mesa Priela (Powers and .Johnson 1987), 
which contain only hogans but are fortified with 
ma.sonry defense walls. Usually one to four hogans 
are present at pueblito sites, but six to ten hogans 
may occur. There are a few pueblitos which do not 
appear to have associated hogans, such as Shaft 
House investigated in the BLM 1989-1990 study. 
Also, there are, in the Dinetah District, many 
(jobernador Phase hogans which do not appear to 
be directly as.socialed with pueblitos. Settlements 
that contain only hogans represent approximately 
half of the sites in a survey conducted by Keur 
(1944:75). It should be noted, however, that many 
of the sites noted by Keur are probably located in 
proximity to pueblitos. 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



Table 68. The Gobernador Phase Pueblito Complex feature and structure types 

Pueblitos 

• Isolated rooms on boulder tops, mesa points, and other defensive locations. 

• Multi-room complexes (often multi-storied with towers and associated hogans). 

Masonry Rooms 

• Noncontiguous masonry rooms. 

• Rooms under rockshelters or boulders. 

• Ledge or boulder-backed rooms. 

tlogans 

• Forksticks (with or without basal stone alignments). 

• Masonry-based (circular rooms, masonry-based with cribbed log upper walls and roof). 

• Cribbed* (rare, examples seen in the Dinetah District, at Mesa Prieta). 

Sweat Lodges 

• Discard piles, hearths, and lodges. 

Kamadas and Shades 

• Small square-rectangular log shelters* (Marshall 1985:85). 

• Large vertical post shades (with or without basal rock alignments). 

• Lean-tos* (Hester 1962:45). 

Rockshelters 

• Cliff house rooms in elevated cliff shelters. 

• Cliff base overhangs (with or without structures). 

• Overhangs under boulders or in ledges (with or without structures). 

• Cavities and caves (with or without structures). 

Storage Facilities 

• Walled in cliff cavities or rooms in rockshelters. 

• Small masonry unit (masonry box). 

• Intramural bins. 

• Pits ciiescomates (bell-shaped pits). 

Hearth or Oven Areas 

• Isolated or multiple hearths (small cluster of fire-cracked rock). 

• Isolated or multiple hearths (slab-lined). 

• Ovens (concentrations of hearth debris and artifacts). 

Middens 

• Surface scatters. 

• Midden formations. 

Corrals and Sheep Beds 

• Livestock corrals (boulder-based with apparent deadwood fences in open bench, cliff bench, cliff base, 
and overhang locations). 

• Antelope corrals (deadwood fences)* (Hester 1962:37). 



238 



Chapter 1 1 



Table 68. The Gobernador Phase Pueblito Complex feature and structure types (concluded) 



Caches 

Ceramic Scatters 

• Pot drop (single vessel). 

• Scatters (multiple vessels). 

Rock Art Panels 
Burials* 

Defensive Constructions 

• Masonry defensive walls (often with arrow ports). 

• Masonry ladder shaft-housing (Shaft House only). 

• Defensive entrances (bridges, blind entries, labyrinths, covered crevices). 

• Deadwood fences* (Cottonwood Divide and Gomez Canyon Ruin). 

Aceramic Lithic Scatter* (Navajo identification difficult) 
Shrines* (Hester 1962:37) 
Dance Grounds (Keur 1941:38-39) 

• Not observed in present survey 



Isolated hogans have been located in the Dinctah 
(Enloe et al. 1973) but the frequency and character- 
istics of these sites remains to be determined. 

The hogan is an ancestral and typically Navajo 
construction. The pueblito has been attributed to 
Puebloan construction and/or influence while the 
presence of hogan structures at pueblito sites has 
been attributed to joint residence. This is a simplis- 
tic, and probably incorrect assumption. Indeed, the 
pueblitos were probably built by and lived in by 
Navajo populations with or without their occasional 
Puebloan guests and soon-to-be relatives (see also 
Hogan, this volume). 

Both forkstick and masonry-based cribbed log 
hogans are present at the pueblito sites. Forkstick 
hogans with and without basal rock alignments are 
most common. The hogans with basal alignments 
appear to have a single course of sand.stone blocks 
set around the outside of the room to prevent the 
entry of moi.sturc and perhaps to stabili/e the log 
superstructure. The masonry-based hogans have 
walls, often built of large blocks, which appear to 
have stood from 50 cm to 1 m high, upon which was 



apparently placed a cribbed log upper wall and roof 
dome. Occasionally, hogans had lateral entryways 
or large slab doorway frames. Cribbed log hogans 
without basal constructions are rare but have been 
observed at Mesa Prieta and are reported in the 
Largo area by Farmer (1942:70-71). None were 
found in (he 1989-1990 BLM Survey. Rectangular 
log house structures are also known in the Dinetah 
District (Marshall 1985:8.5) and were observed at the 
Adolfo Canyon Site. 

Hogans documented in this survey range from 
1-10 units per site and no hogans were found at 
Simon Canyon or al Shaft House. All of the hogans 
ob.servcd at the Split Rock, Frances Canyon, Crow 
Canyon, and Hadlock's Crow Canyon complexes are 
forkstick types, while only masonry-based hogans 
appear al ihe Largo School Complex (one unit) and 
at the Hooded Fireplace Complex (three units). 
Both forkstick and masonry-based hogans appear at 
the Tapacilo Complex. 

The masonry-based hogans al Hooded Fireplace 
(Features 11, 12 and 13) are cla.ssic big-block con- 
structions. The rooms are 5-6 m in diameter and 



239 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 






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have masonry walls which originally stood to an 
elevation of 50-100 cm. The blocks used in these 
hogans are large (20-60 cm across) with occasional 
elements 75 cm to 1 m in size. Deteriorated timbers 
were found in these rooms but it is not possible to 
determine the specifics of the roof construction, 
although they are believed to have been cribbed log. 
The masonary-based hogans found at Largo School 
(Feature B-4) and at Tapacito (Feature 4) are both 
3 m in diameter and had walls three to four courses 
high (circa 50 cm). The Tapacito structure has a 
stone-lined entry way extending south from the 
hogan ring. 

The hogans at the Split Rock Complex are all 
forkstick constructions. There are three forkstick 
structures defined by collapsed, concentrically 
placed timbers in the immediate pueblito area. 
Three outlying locations with midden areas also 
suggest that hogans were present. Two forkstick 
structures in the pueblito area have partial align- 
ments of basal stones and are 4-5 m in diameter. The 
third is a small unit 2-3 m in diameter. Two forkstick 
structures are also in proximity to Frances Canyon 
Pueblito and one large forkstick structure of unde- 
termined association is located about 300 m to the 
southeast of the pueblito. In 1915, Morris described 
a large forkstick structure directly north of the 
pueblito (Carlson 1965:32, 38), but there is no evi- 
dence of this structure today. A basal rock align- 
ment for a probable forkstick hogan, 3 m in 
diameter, was found in the recent survey 35 m east 
of the pueblito. Another large forkstick defined by 
a well-preserved pattern of timbers was observed on 
a lower canyon bench about 300 m southeast of the 
pueblito. A midden and a sweat lodge were also 
located nearby. This large structure is Gobernador 
Phase, but its association with the Frances Canyon 
Pueblito is undetermined. 

A group of six hogans is located on the bench flat 
directly adjacent and southeast of the Tapacito 
Pueblito. One unit (Feature 4) appears to be a 
masonry-based cribbed log construction about 3 m 
in diameter. There is also another masonry-based 
construction (Feature No. 2) which appears to have 
been a rectangular unit 3 x 2 m in size, and opened 
to the south. The other six hogans are probable 
forksticks with low rock basal alignments. All of the 
hogans found in the Crow Canyon Complex (8) and 
in the Hadlock Crow Canyon Complex (10) survey 
areas are forksticks with basal stone alignments. 



241 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



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Chapter 1 1 



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243 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



Most of these structures are 3 m in diameter, al- 
though one unit 2 m in diameter and another 4.5 m 
in diameter were found. 

Sweat Lodges 

There is considerable evidence for the use of 
sweat lodges by the Gobernador Phase populations 
of the Dinetah District (Keur 1941:37, 1944:77; Mar- 
shall 1985:182). It is probable that the sweat lodge 
is an ancestral Athabaskan trait, since sweat bathing 
is characteristic of subarctic cultures and is a com- 
mon element of Athabaskan culture in the north 
(Helm 1981). It is curious, however, that sweat 
lodges are said to appear only infrequently in the 
Navajo occupations north of the San Juan River 
(Hester and Shriner 1963:47). A sweat lodge exca- 
vated at La Ceja Blanca in the Blanco drainage 
yielded a radiocarbon date of 1700 ±50 years (Mar- 
shall 1985:182). Whatever the ancestral history of 
sweat bathing, it was an important aspect of eigh- 
teenth century Gobernador Phase culture. 

In the 1989-1990 ELM Pueblito Survey, 19 sweat 
lodge sites were found and represent 32% of all 
Gobernador Phase sites identified (see Table 69). 
This is the most frequent Gobernador Phase site 
type encountered in the survey. The number of 
sweat lodge sites varies from one location at the 
Largo School and at the Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
complexes to five lodges at the Split Rock Complex. 

No lodges were found in Simon Canyon or at the 
Hooded Fireplace Complex. The absence of a lodge 
at Simon Canyon is expected given the absence of an 
associated complex of forkstick hogans and middens 
and its position north of the San Juan. The absence 
of sweat lodge sites at Hooded Fireplace is, however, 
atypical. 

A reconnaissance of the Hooded Fireplace area 
in proximity to the study area was completed at the 
end of the survey to be certain that any associated 
sweat lodges were not overlooked. No sweat lodge 
sites could be found in the area surrounding Hooded 
Fireplace within a zone which could be reasonably 
attributed to the complex. The absence of a sweat 
lodge at Hooded Fireplace may be one factor sug- 
gesting possible Puebloan occupation of the com- 
plex. The use of sweat lodge facilities by Puebloan 
populations is infrequent and sweat lodge sites do 
not normally appear in a Puebloan site context. 

The characteristics of the sweat lodge sites found 
in the Pueblito Survey are defined in Table 71. In 



general, these sites are recognized by the presence 
of burned rock discard piles and charcoal-stained 
areas. Evidence of the actual forkstick lodge struc- 
ture is infrequent due to deterioration. In the pres- 
ent survey, lodge slats for only 1 of 19 sites were 
observed. Part of an intact lodge was also seen 
during a later tour on the bench west from and below 
the Mesa Prieta Site. Most (73%) of the sweat lodge 
sites found in the ELM 1989-1990 Survey are devoid 
of artifacts. When artifacts do occur, they are lim- 
ited to a few sherds or fiakes or to a cluster of sherds 
from a single Dinetah Gray vessel. These sherd 
clusters probably represent water vessels used dur- 
ing the sweat ceremonies. There seems to be a 
decided preference for the placement of sweat 
lodges to the north (42%) or to the east (47%) of the 
pueblitos. Only one sweat lodge was located to the 
west and one to the south of the pueblitos. This 
decided placement of sweat lodge structures to the 
north and east probably relates to the primary use of 
these directions in the ceremonial traditions related 
to sweat bathing. 

There are various hearths and ovens also found in 
the pueblito complexes, but these areas contain an 
abundance of artifact material, have smaller fire- 
cracked rock sizes and frequently contain burned 
bone and other subsistence materials indicative of 
culinary activities. The typical Gobernador Phase 
sweat lodge discard pile has sandstone block ele- 
ments 10-20 cm in size with occasional elements 
5-10 cm and 20-30 cm in size. The rather large size 
of rock elements in the discard piles suggests that 
the stones were used for a single event and were not 
subject to repeated use, which would have resulted 
in considerable fragmentation. In many sweat lodge 
sites there is an area of charcoal-stained soil 2-3 m 
in diameter adjacent to the discard pile, which is 
apparently hearth fill. Four of the 19 sites had two 
distinct discard piles. Discard piles are normally 
3-8 m in size with mound elevations of 50 cm. How- 
ever, a few large piles of 10-15 m size and up to 
1.25 m in elevation and indicating considerable use 
were found. The largest piles were at the Tapacito 
Complex (LA 71573) and the Frances Canyon Com- 
plex (LA 71591). 

Kumadus and Shades 

Ramadas and shades are frequent constructions 
in modern Navajo settlements and encampments. 
These structures were also no doubt commonly used 



244 



Chapter 1 1 









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245 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



by ancestral Navajo populations but they are rarely 
preserved. In the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 
only three structures arc tentatively identified as 
shades or ramadas. It is probable, that numerous 
ramada and shade structures were present in the 
complexes investigated, but that no surface archeo- 
logical evidence remains. 

Several types of open and closed shade houses 
have been documented ethnographically 
(KJuckhohn et al. 1971:160-162). Large open rama- 
das of Gobernador Phase affinity have been exca- 
vated in the Navajo Reservoir District (Hester and 
Shiner 1963:15) and small enclosed shade houses 
which may have had walls of leaning logs and brush 
are also known (Eddy 1966:88-90; Marshall 
1985:85). In addition, there are ramada structures 
which have low rock wall foundations (Eddy 
1966:43-44). The latter type of ramada is more easily 
defined since the low rock wall alignments of the 
structures are preserved and may be identified in 
surface observations. 

There are three structural features identified in 
the 1989-1990 BLM Survey which may be low-walled 
ramadas of the latter type. These are Features 9 and 
10 at Hooded Fireplace and the enclosure in the east 
midden at Frances Canyon. None of the simple log 
and brush shades were found in the survey, but this 
is probably a function of poor preservation. In a tour 
of pueblito sites following the BLM survey, two of 
the log house type structures were found on a bench 
about 250 m southwest of the Aldolfo Canyon Site. 
These structures were defined as ramadas by Has- 
kell (1975). 

One must recognize that there is little archeolog- 
ical distinction between structures which were sim- 
ple shades of brush built on a frame and structures 
of similar construction which were closed with 
brush, branches, and mud. 

Rockshelters 

The numerous rockshelters of the Dinetah can- 
yonlands were frequently used by the Gobernador 
Phase Navajo as areas of protection for storage and 
shelter and are frequently the location of rock art 
panels and probable shrines. 

Fortified Gobernador Phase cliff houses located 
in elevated rockshelters on high cliff faces are known 
at Shaft House, Unreachable Rockshelter, and 
Christmas Tree Ruin (Powers and Johnson 1987:69, 
122). In the 1989-1990 BLM Survey, rockshelters 



with evidence of Gobernador Phase utilization, in 
addition to the Shaft House Complex cliff house, 
were found at the Frances Canyon Complex (LA 
71597), the Largo School Complex (Feature A-5 at 
the pueblito), and the Split Rock Complex (LA 
71563). In addition, three rockshelters which house 
probable Gobernador Phase masonry granary 
rooms, were found in the Crow Canyon Complex. 

Rock art panels of Cjobcrnador and Rosa Phase 
affinity were found in the Frances Canyon Complex 
shelter (LA 71597). A spring also emanates from 
this shelter. Traces of Dinetah Gray ceramics were 
observed in a shelter near Split Rock Pueblito. 
Many small shelters and overhangs in the area of the 
pueblitos were used for storage areas as these areas 
offer excellent protection from the elements. 

Storage Facilities 

Agriculture was an important aspect of eigh- 
teenth century Gobernador Phase subsistence and 
the preservation and storage of food products was 
essential. The Gobernador Phase populations dur- 
ing the period from 1707 to 1743 are reported, in the 
Rabal document, to have raised "Large crops of 
corn, beans, squash and melons" (Hill 1940:400,402, 
410). Archcological excavations in the Dinetah Dis- 
trict have yielded corn cobs, squash rinds, and beans 
(Eddy 1966:512; Keur 1944:79). All of these food 
products were stored in bins and granaries within 
and near the pueblito settlements. A variety of stor- 
age bins, granaries, and rooms were encountered in 
the pueblito surveys. Most of the storage facilities 
identified in the survey were found in rockshelters 
which provide a protective dry environment and a 
stone fioor to prevent entry by rodents. Other stor- 
age facilities include intramural bins and subterra- 
nean bell-shaped pits. Few, if any, artifacts are 
found in proximity to storage facilities. Storage bins 
and granaries are often located in concealed areas 
along the canyon walls. 

Most of these structures consist of masonry walls 
which enclose a sheltered area 50 cm to 2 m in size. 
These bins arc often low (1 m) and have a small 
enlryway which was closed with a stone slab. Struc- 
tures of this type were found at Largo School 
Pueblito (LA 71556), Hooded Fireplace Pueblito 
(Provenience 2, Feature 3), Shaft House Pueblito 
(Features 17-21), and Frances Canyon Pueblito (one 
bin on a cliff ledge 50 m west of pueblito). Larger 
granary rooms constructed in rockshelters on the 



246 



Chapter 1 1 



high canyon walls are also known in the Crow Can- 
yon Complex. Three of these granary rooms (2-4 m 
in size) were located within 200-300 m of the Crow 
Canyon Pueblito. Intramural storage bins are also 
known at Shaft House (within Rooms 13 and 15) and 
eight bins appear within the Frances Canyon 
Pueblito. In addition, it is probable that rooms in 
some pueblitos were used for storage. 

The storage of food products in underground pits 
also appears to have been a common practice, al- 
though the identification of such pits during survey 
is infrequent. Only a single bell-shaped storage pit 
was found in the BLM Pueblito Survey, at site LA 
77871 in the Crow Canyon Complex. The roof of this 
pit had recently collapsed into a previously covered, 
but open pit, thus exposing the structure. Similar 
undercut storage pits have been found elsewhere in 
Gobernador Phase sites. Eight storage pits, later 
used as burial chambers, were excavated by Morris 
at Three Corn Ruin (Carlson 1965:24). Similar pits 
are known in the area north of the San Juan, some 
of which occur within hogans (Hester 1962:47). 

Subterranean storage pits are reported in the 
eighteenth century Spanish documents concerned 
with the Dinetah region. In the Rabal document a 
1744 testimony states that "underground places 
called cuesmomates (Aztec for corn bins) were used 
for storage" (Hill 1940:402). Similar storage pits are 
found in ethnographic studies of the Navajo (Baily 
1940; Hill 1938) where two to four pits were used by 
each family. These storage pits were excavated in 
dry ground, fired to harden the walls and expel 
moisture, and then lined with cedar bark. It is prob- 
able that numerous subterranean storage pits are 
present in the pueblito study areas, but no evidence 
was found. 



Hearths and Ovens 

Hearths are a common feature of the pueblito 
complex. Various types of hearths appear in intra- 
mural contexts, in the immediate area of the 
pueblitos, and scattered in the outlying complexes. 
Considerable quantities of hearth debris including 
charcoal and burned sandstone spalls often appear 
in midden areas. The pueblitos in this forested can- 
yonland environment were usually well-provisioned 
with wood and it seems as if considerable quantities 
of it were consumed for winter heating and for the 
preparation of food products. 

Most of the pueblitos and many of the hogans 



were equipped with intramural hearths for heating. 
A few of the pueblitos have the famous Spanish-style 
"hooded fireplace," which consists of a curved juni- 
per log set into the corner as the base for a mud-cov- 
ered juniper slat hood. Tapacito, Frances Canyon, 
and Hooded Fireplace pueblitos all have two 
hooded fireplaces. Most of the pueblitos, however, 
do not have them and were heated with hearths 
usually located in the central floor area (Carlson 
1965:34). Hogans with or without hearths maybe an 
indication of winter and summer habitations, but the 
presence or absence of hearths in hogans cannot be 
determined from survey inspection. 

Numerous hearths have been located in direct 
proximity to the pueblitos. Hearths also appear to 
be scattered in certain areas of the outlying complex. 
Most of the intact hearths defined in this survey are 
the vertical slab type or are defined by a scatter of 
burned sandstone spalls. There are occasional 
hearths defined by charcoal stains 1-2 m in diameter, 
but are devoid of fire-cracked rock. Hearths defined 
by concentrations of angular rocks, such as those 
used in sweat lodge areas, have not been observed 
in this survey. 

The number and location of hearths in the im- 
mediate area of the pueblitos varies, although 
hearths often appear near middens. At the Tapacito 
Complex all of the four hearths occur in the area of 
the hogans. The outlying hearths of the complex are 
most often located on the adjacent mesa top at 
50-250 m distant from the pueblitos. Outlying 
hearths were found in all but the Simon Canyon and 
Hooded Fireplace study areas. In the Split Rock 
Complex, four well-defined outlying hearth sites 
were found on the mesa top east of the pueblito. 
These sites are secluded from the immediate area of 
the pueblito and contain from one to three hearths 
of both the slab-lined and the ash stain type. These 
sites obviously represent some type of encampment 
or processing area which required at least partial 
seclusion from the immediate pueblito settlement. 
Ceramic artifacts are present but the absence or 
near absence of lithic tools suggests that the loca- 
tions were not butchering areas. 

There are two outlying hearths found in the BLM 
1989-1990 Pueblito Survey that exhibit considerable 
quantities of hearth midden debris. These have 
been called "oven sites," although it is probable that 
they arc simply hearths which had .seen repeated and 
extensive utilization. The sites are located on the 



247 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



mesa tops in the outlying areas of the Largo School 
Complex (LA 71555) and the Frances Canyon Com- 
plex (LA 71586). These sites are characterized by 
extensive middens (circa 10 x 10 m ) containing an 
abundance of ash and burned sandstone spalls. Ce- 
ramic artifacts are common and lithic materials 
occur in moderate quantities at LA 71555 but only 
in traces at LA 71586. 

There is one site in the Frances Canyon Complex 
(LA 71593) which appears to be an encampment 
defined by five hearths, each with an associated 
artifact scatter. This site contains only chipped and 
groundstone and its cultural-temporal affiliation 
cannot be determined with certainty. This site cer- 
tainly differs from other outlying hearths in that it 
has an abundance of lithic material. The lithic as- 
semblage resembles that of the Navajo assemblages 
seen elsewhere but no diagnostic artifacts were 
found. There is a possibility, however uncertain, 
that this site represents a protohistoric encampment 
established by visitors to the Frances Canyon 
Pueblito on the mesa top across the rincon canyon. 

Middens 

The location, size, and content of midden debris 
in the pueblito complexes exhibit considerable vari- 
ability and have the potential to yield information on 
Gobernador Phase lifeways and site area functions. 
The scope of this project does not allow for a com- 
prehensive study of these middens, but some obser- 
vations regarding the Gobernador Phase middens 
found in the survey are offered here. Specific infor- 
mation on each midden found in the survey is also 
presented in the site descriptions. 

Most of the middens found in the pueblito survey 
are located in direct proximity to the pueblito struc- 
tures, although occasional middens appear in the 
outlying site complex. Midden formations were 
found at all of the pueblito sites with the exception 
of Simon Canyon, where the absence of a midden is 
probably due to the short-term utilization of the site. 
The quantity of midden fill which appears in associ- 
ation with the pueblitos varies considerably from an 
estimated 6 cubic meters at Shaft House to a sub- 
stantial 394 cubic meters at Frances Canyon. 

Multiple middens occur in proximity to most of 
the pueblitos in the Dinetah District, and account 
for most of the trash debris, indicating that the 
pueblito was the focus of the occupation. Two types 
of house middens were observed at the Split Rock, 



Frances Canyon, and Tapacito pueblitos. One type, 
which appears in direct proximity to the pueblito, is 
characterized by dark charcoal-laden sediments 
containing an abundance of artifacts. The other 
type is located more distant from the pueblito and 
contains, in addition to charcoal-laden sediments 
and fragmented artifacts, considerable quantities of 
burned sandstone spalls and bone. The former type 
appears to be discarded charcoal and artifact mate- 
rials from the house occupation while the latter type 
contains, in addition, various debris from butchering 
and cooking activities and a much higher diversity of 
lithic tool types. There are certainly two types of 
functional activities or discard patterns indicated by 
these differing house middens. 

Another distinct midden type is that associated 
with the small hogan. These are small (usually 3-6 m 
diameter), shallow (10 cm) middens in direct prox- 
imity to hogans. Hogan middens may or may not 
contain fire-cracked rock and bone. The hogan 
middens sampled at the Largo School, Hooded Fire- 
place, and Tapacito complexes revealed a rather 
high incidence of projectile points. A few outlying 
middens were observed in the Frances Canyon, Split 
Rock, Crow Canyon, and Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
complexes which were associated with outlying 
forkstick hogans. 

Debris which result from the specialized use of 
hearth or oven areas represent yet another distinct 
midden type. Only two of these specialized culinary- 
processing middens were found in the pueblito sur- 
vey, one at LA 71586 in the Frances Canyon 
Complex and the other at LA 71555 in the Largo 
School Complex. These middens are about 10 x 
10 m in size and are characterized by large quantities 
of burned stone and an abundance of ash fill. Ce- 
ramic and lithic artifacts and burned bone are also 
present. The stone is largely small sandstone spalls 
and slabs and contrasts to the large block elements 
at sweat lodge sites. Also, the high density of arti- 
facts contrasts to their absence of such at sweat 
lodges, even though both sweat lodge and oven mid- 
dens have considerable quantities of ash. 

A description of each midden area and tables 
which itemize the characteristics of various middens 
appear in the earlier descriptive section of this re- 
port. The total estimated quantity of midden sedi- 
ments within the immediate area of the pueblitos 
under consideration here varies as follows: Simon 
Canyon (none). Shaft House (6 cubic meters), Crow 



248 



Chapter 1 1 



Canyon (19.8 cubic meters), Largo School (40 cubic 
meters); Split Rock (18.6 cubic meters), Tapacito 
(47.5 cubic meters). Hooded Fireplace (193 cubic 
meters), and Frances Canyon (394 cubic meters). 
The considerable midden sediments found at Fran- 
ces Canyon and Hooded Fireplace no doubt reflect 
a larger population size and a longer period of oc- 
cupation. The small quantities of midden debris at 
Shaft House suggest that this fortified edifice was 
used only briefly or perhaps as a temporary retreat 
for other nearby settlements. 

Corrals and Sheep Beds 

An important aspect of the eighteenth century 
Gobernador Phase economy was the raising of live- 
stock. The Rabal document, which concerns Span- 
ish visits to the area from 1706 to 1743 (Hill 
1940:405), contains repeated reference to sheep and 
goats among the Dinetah populations, and descrip- 
tions of a few small flocks of 50 to 150 head. Horses 
are also noted in the Rabal document, but were said 
to be few in number. Cattle tracks were observed 
only by Juan Tafoia in 1743 but, until faunal remains 
of cattle are found, one might suspect that the tracks 
were elk. 

Many of the excavations conducted in the Dinetah 
District have yielded the remains of sheep, goat, and 
horse. Haskell (1975:135) found sheep Ijones to be 
the most common, but only a few horse bones. Al- 
though documented among the Navajo since 1653 
(Brugge 1980:20), horses appear to have been diffi- 
cult to raise in the rocky country of the Dinetah. The 
1745 testimony of Juan Vigil states that "the Navajos 
have some horses although only a few that they are 
unable to feed them because of the war made upon 
(them) by the Pagan Yutes" (Hill 1940:412). 

Despite the frequent reference to livestock 
among the Gobernador populations and the pres- 
ence of sheep, goat, and horse in the faunal assem- 
blage (Carlson 1965:11, 21), there has been little 
reference to corrals in the archeological records of 
the district. Indeed, only Haskell (1975:85) reports 
a corral. Corrals are, however, present at many of 
the pueblitos, but because of their often informal 
nature they have gone unnoticed. In this study, five 
to seven corrals were noted and two additional cor- 
rals or lamb beds were observed in a recent tour of 
other pueblito sites. A multitude of natural enclo- 
sures which may have been fenced off only by a 
dcadwood or brush fence arc present in the canyon- 



lands of the Dinetah and it is probable that many of 
the corrals and sheep beds were informal structures 
for which no evidence remains. 

Corrals recognized in the present survey include 
enclosures at the Largo School, Hooded Fireplace, 
Shaft House, and Hadlock's Crow Canyon com- 
plexes. These structures are defined by wall align- 
ments of stacked rock and often incorporate natural 
features of the landscape. The alignments often 
served as basal walls for a deadwood or brush fence. 
In the lower west provenience at Largo School 
Pueblito there are two enclosures (Features B-3 and 
B-5) which appear to be corral/pens defined by 
alignments of large stacked rock elements (20-75 cm 
in size) incorporating large boulders. The enclo- 
sures are 5 x 6 m and 8 x 4 m in size and appear to 
have had original wall elevations of about 50 cm. 
Another corral, located in Provenience 2, at Hooded 
Fireplace Pueblito, is defined by a partial enclosure 
of large blocks (30-60 cm in size) on a bench flat 
adjacent to and incorporating a group of talus base 
boulders. This alignment forms an arc about 10 m 
across and was apparently closed with deadwood. A 
boulder-backed shelter exists adjacent to the enclo- 
sure. Another enclosure. Feature 10, is located di- 
rectly adjacent to the Hooded Fireplace Pueblito. It 
is defined by a low wall which encloses an area 7 x 
7 m in size. This is a possible animal pen but the 
regularity of the masonry wall is atypical and may 
indicate that the enclosure had a different function. 

Another corral, LA 71576 in the Shaft House 
Complex, is located in a high narrow cliff ledge near 
the canyon rim about 150 m from the pueblito. Ac- 
cess to the ledge is restricted to a single broken cleft 
which would allow only the passage of sheep and 
goats. A small shelter constructed adjacent to the 
corral is defined by a semicircular alignment of large 
blocks (30-75 cm in size), forming an enclosure 8 x 
5 m in size. The structure is at the cliff base where 
there is some shelter. The stones forming the enclo- 
sure are burned, probably due to a conflagration of 
the brush or deadwood fence originally placed on 
the rock alignment. 

A similar cliff ledge corral is present 70 m north- 
west of Hadlock's Crow Canyon Pueblito. Here a 
ledge (10 x 16 m in size) on an upper cliff is closed 
off by a stacked rock wall. 

Similar early Athabaskan corrals located in ele- 
vated positions have been documented in the Alamo 
Navajo area (Walt and Marshall 1984), where the 



249 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



corral enclosures were found on high mesa points 
surrounded by cliffs and closed across the peninsula 
by stone alignments. The stones closing the point in 
ihc Alamo Navajo corrals were also burned, indicat- 
ing a brush fence superstructure. Small shelters were 
also found outside and adjacent to the enclosure. 
The Shaft House and Alamo corrals are in effect 
fortified. The other Dinetah corrals are located in 
direct proximity to the habitation areas where the 
stock can be guarded. 

In a tour of other pueblitos, two corrals were 
observed, one at the Compresser Station Site (LA 
5658) and the other at Star Rock Refuge (LA 55838). 
Both are sheltered cliff-base locations with accumu- 
lations of sheep dung. The Compresser Station 
sheep bed is in a rockshelter/overhang directly adja- 
cent to the pueblito in an area about 20 x 10 m in size, 
with an accumulation of dung 25 cm thick. The Star 
Rock corral is located on a ledge at the cliff base 
directly below and south of the elevated rocky crag. 
Dung was observed in two adjacent shelters at Star 
Rock about 6 x 8 m and 5 x 10 m in size. A few 
boulders form an alignment which closes off the 
ledge on the west, and cliffs surround the ledge 
elsewhere. Both the Compresser Station and Star 
Rock corrals are located in secluded (and at Star 
Rock, elevated) areas which probably would not 
have seen later use by Hispanic herders. There can 
be little question that the stock dung found at these 
sites is from eighteenth century sheep or goat beds. 

It is possible that many of the structures identified 
in surveys as small rooms or storage units are actu- 
ally lambing pens. Indeed, many structures identi- 
fied as storage units in the Chaco Canyon survey 
were later identified by Navajo stockmen as lambing 
pens (Brugge 1980:72-73). 

Caches 

Cached artifacts are often found in crevices and 
clefts of the canyon walls or hidden under boulders. 
Occasionally, cached items are also sealed in storage 
bins (Hester 1962:46). Items which are usually 
cached include ceramic vessels, baskets, digging 
sticks and other wooden tools, and ceremonial ob- 
jects (Carlson 1965:40, 45-57). Three cache sites 
were found in the ELM 1989-1990 Survey. These 
included an iron ax (lO-lO) and three ceramic ves- 
sels (LA 71594) at the Frances Canyon Complex, 
and a collection of weaving tools (LA 71599) in a 
crevice above Split Rock Pueblito. The ax and weav- 
ing tools were collected and are described in Appen- 



dix B. The ceramic vessels were excavated and are 
described in Appendix A. 

Ceramic Scatters 
Other than the occasional pot drop (i.e., a cluster 
of sherds from a single vessel), scatters of ceramic 
artifacts without associated structural features are 
most unusual at pueblito sites and only one site that 
can be described as a Gobernador Phase ceramic 
scatter was found. This site (LA 71588) is located in 
the Frances Canyon Complex on the mesa top about 
100 m northwest of the pueblito. The sherds, repre- 
senting two or three vessels, are located in a sandy 
area, 12 x 16 m in size and devoid of structural 
features or fire-cracked rock. No other artifacts 
were in the site area; however, the soil is lightly 
charcoal stained. Therefore, the site seems to rep- 
resent some type of specialized activity area which 
involved the use of a hearth and both service and 
utility vessels. 

Rock Art Panels 

The Dinetah District is famous for its rich tradi- 
tion of eighteenth century Navajo rock art, which 
was described by Polly Schaafsma in 1980 as the 
Gobernador style. Numerous finely executed poly- 
chrome paintings and incised and pecked petro- 
glyphs decorate the canyon walls of the Dinetah. 
Gobernador-style rock art is characterized by its 
ceremonial content (Plates 17a and 17b) and its 
resemblance to both Pueblo religious iconography 
and modern Navajo sand paintings. Gobernador 
Phase rock art is normally located apart from habi- 
tation sites and is most frequently found in secluded 
rockshelters, near springs, and on cliffs near canyon 
confluences. Many of these locations were appar- 
ently considered sacred and were shrines or ceremo- 
nial grounds separate from, though often near, the 
secular space of the habitation. This seclusion 
seems to account for the infrequency of rock art 
found in the 1989-1990 Survey. Only four Navajo 
rock art panels were located in the 430 acres cov- 
ered. This represents only 6% of the Gobernador 
Phase site inventory. Many suitable areas of cliff 
surface appear in direct proximity to the pueblito 
sites, yet few are decorated. It is clear that rock art 
is not a common feature found in the immediate area 
of the pueblito complex, although much of the rock 
art in the Dinetah was no doubt created by the 
inhabitants of the pueblito settlements. 



250 



Chapter 1 1 




Plate 17a: Navajo supernatural. 




Plate 17b: Navajo deity symbols: Born for 
Water (hourglass) & Monster Slayer (bow). 



Burials 

No human burials were found in the 1989-1990 
BLM Survey. Human burials in the Dinetah District 
are normally interred in rock crevices covered with 
timber and rock, in storage bins, or in bell-shaped 
storage pits (Carlson 1965:25-27, 38-40; Hester 
1962:60; Keur 1941:65). The burials found in stor- 
age pits at the northeast knoll near Three Corn Ruin 
are most unusual. Five graves excavated by Morris 
in 1915 were sealed in bell-shaped pits about 200 
yards northeast of the pueblito. In one burial alone 
there were 12,240 glass trade beads. Other grave 
goods at the site included 25 shell pendants, 405 
olivella shell beads, 800 shell disc beads, an elk tooth, 
4 bone beads, a lignite bead, 1 1 copper bells, 3 metal 
crosses, and 3 copper buttons. Most incredibly, a 
total of 63 ceramic vessels were broken over the 
knoll after the bodies were interred and the pits 
filled. These vessels, described by Carlson (1965), 
represent perhaps the best collection of eighteenth 
century Puebloan matte paint vessels ever found. 
Also included in the collection is a large fragment of 
a Chinese porcelain plate dated to the transition 
period between the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties. The 
story behind this incredible collection of wealth bro- 
ken over the graves of five individuals can only be 
speculation. 

Ceramic Discussion 

The ceramic artifacts sampled during the BLM 
1989-1990 Pueblito Survey are lasted according to 
provenience in the site tables (Chapters 2 through 
10), are summarized according to composite 
pueblito groups in Table 72, and by site location 
within the pueblito survey groups in Tables 73-80. 
Emphasis in this survey was given to the definition 
of ceramic ware-type frequencies for the purposes 
of site comparison. Typological definitions of the 
Dinetah ceramic materials were defined in previous 
studies by Brugge (1963, 1982); Carlson (1965), 
Eddy (1966) and Marshall (1985). 

Most of the ceramics observed during the 
pueblito survey are highly fragmented. Occasional 
sherd clusters representing a single vessel were 
found and counted as a single sherd in the statistical 
summaries. A total of 2203 sherds (corrected 2024) 
were inspected during the survey. 

The great majority of ceramic material observed 
during the survey is indigenous Dinetah Gray 



251 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



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252 



Chapter 1 1 



Table 73. Largo School Complex ceramic frequencies 



Ceramic ware-type 



Pueblito 






Total 


LA 5667 


LA 71555 


LA 71557 


No. % 


38 


20 


11 


69 85.2 


- 


1 


- 


1 1.2 


8 


3 


- 


11 13.6 


46 


24 


11 


81 



Dinetah Gray 

Indented 
Gobernador Yellow 

Total 



(84.2%) and Gobernador Yellow (14.1%). Intru- 
sive ceramics, mostly of Puebloan origin, appear in 
only minor (3%) quantities. The Dinetah Gray ma- 
terials are predominately plain smoothed (69.4% of 
the grayware sample) and plain striated (30%). 
Dinetah vessels with striated exterior surface treat- 
ment are common in most pueblito complexes 
(ranging from 17.4% to 41.5%), but occur with in- 
frequently (1.7%) at the Hadlock's Crow Canyon 
Complex. Only traces of Dinetah indented, incised, 
or filleted material were found. Indeed, of the large 
number of Dinetah Gray rims inspected, only one 
from Spit Rock Pueblito was filleted and only one 
from Frances Canyon was incised. Gobernador 
Yellow materials were found in all of the study areas 
and appear with frequency in pueblito and outlying 
site assemblages. No attempt was made in this study 
to distinquish between the Frances Canyon and 
Gobernador Polychrome types (Eddy 1966:406), al- 
though it is clear that most of the sherds are of 
Gobernador Polychrome material. 

Intrusive ceramics are mostly of Puebloan origin, 
although traces of Ocate Micaceous of Jicarilla 
Apache or perhaps northern Tewan affinity, were 
found at Tapacito. Intrusive materials represent 
only 3% of the total sample and do not exceed 8% 
of any individual sample. There is a tendency for 
intrusives to be most concentrated at pueblitos, al- 
though occasional intrusives were found in outlying 
sites. The pueblito sites with the most intrusive 
ceramics are Hooded Fireplace (7.5%) and 
Tapacito (5.2%). 

Puebloan intrusive vessels from the Hopi, Acoma, 
Puname, Jcmez and the Middle Rio Grande prov- 
inces were encountered. Most of the intrusive ma- 
terials are from the Acoma and Pumame districts. 
The Puebloan ceramic types found include Jemcz 
Black-on-white, Rio Grande Glaze F, Ako Poly- 



chrome, Puname Polychrome, and an unidentified 
Jeddito type. Rio Grande Glaze materials were 
found only at Tapacito which is the earliest dated 
pueblito (1690 to 1694), although one possible 
glazeware sherd was found at Frances Canyon and 
another Glaze F vessel (lO No. 3) was found in the 
Crow Canyon Complex. Jemez Black-on-white was 
found only at one outlying site in the Crow Canyon 
complex. 

Most of the ceramic material observed during the 
survey was found in pueblito middens (67%) and in 
middens adjacent to outlying hogans (20%). Many 
of the outlying site samples include sherds from one 
or two vessel clusters and some outlying site types 
(sweat lodges, storage areas, rock art sites) are de- 
void or have only traces of ceramic material. There 
seems to be no significant difference in the ceramic 
assemblage of the pueblito and outyling hogans. 



Table 74. Hooded Fireplace Complex 
ceramic frequencies (ceramics recovered 
from pueblito area only) 



Ceramic ware-type 


No. 


% 


Dinetah Ciray 






Smoothed 


139 


43.8 


Striated 


122 


38.5 


Gobernador Polychrome 


28 


8.8 


Puname Series 


20 


6.3 


Acoma Scries 


3 


0.9 


Tewa Scries 


1 


0.3 


Anasazi Ware 


3 


0.9 


Unidentified 


1 


0.3 


Total 


317 





253 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



other than a somewhat higher index of intrusives at 
the puebHtos. Gobernador Yellow is common at 
both pueblitos and outlying hogans and, in certain 
examples, is more common in the outlying sites. In 
most of the pueblito complexes Gobernador Yellow 
Wares represent from 7% to 15% of the assemblage. 
There is, however, a higher incidence of Gobern- 
ador Yellow material in the Crow Canyon and the 
adjacent Hadlock's Crow Canyon complexes 
(22.9% and 24.9% respectively). Indeed, there is 
one outlying site each in the Crow Canyon and 
Hadlock's complexes in which Gobernador materi- 
als are predominant (LA 77863 and LA 77877). This 
high incidence of indigeous ware is not, however, 
paralleled by intrusives, because the Crow Canyon 
Complex and the Hadlock's Crow Canyon Complex 
have low intrusive indices (0.8% and 0.5%). 

The ceramic samples from the pueblito com- 
plexes studied in this project, in general, exhibit a 



uniformity in ware-type frequencies. The only con- 
spicuous evidence of temporal variability is the pres- 
ence of Rio CJrande Glazcware at Tapacito, the 
earliest dated pueblito (1690-1694), and traces of 
Glazewarc and Jemez Black-on-white at Crow Can- 
yon. Other than the somewhat higher concentra- 
tions of (iobernador Yellow at Crow Canyon and 
Hadlock's Crow Canyon and the low incidence of 
Dinetah Striated material in the Hadlock's Com- 
plex, there is little significant difference among the 
sample groups. 

Other than a slightly higher index of intrusives in 
the pueblitos there is little difference between 
pueblito and outlying hogan site assemblages. Most 
of the ceramics found in the complexes appears to 
be concentrated in middens adjacent to the pueblito 
and hogan habitation sites. Other special function 
sites, such as the sweat lodge, are devoid of ceramics 
or have only a single vessel cluster. 



254 



Chapter 1 1 





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255 



Evaluation of Pueblito Site Complex 



Table 77. Tapacito Site Complex ceramic frequencies 



Ceramic ware-type 



Total 



LA 2298 LA 71572 LA 71598 No. 



Dinetah Greyware 




Smoothed 


149 


Striated 


52 


Gobernador Polychrome 


28 


Rio Grande Glazes 


5 


Hopi Yellow Ware 


1 


Acoma Ware 


2 


Ocate Micacious 


5 


Unidentified 


2 



40" 



150 


61.0 


52 


21.1 


29 


11.8 


5 


2.0 


1 


0.4 


2 


0.8 


5 


2.0 


2 


.08 



Total 



244 



246 



vessel cluster treated as 1 sherd 



Table 78. Shaft House Complex ceramic frequencies 



Ceramic ware-type 



Shaft House 

LA 5660 LA 71578 LA 71580 



Total 

No. % 



Dinetah Greyware 

Smoothed 

Striated 
Gobernador Polychrome 
Acoma Ware 
Unidentified 

Total 

* vessel cluster treated as 1 sherd 



t7 


2 


20* 


30 


44.8 


>3 


2 


- 


25 


37.3 


9 


- 


1 


10 


15.0 


1 


. 


- 


1 


1.5 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1.5 



61 



67 



256 



Chapter 1 1 



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257 



Chapter12 



Evidence of Early Developmental 

Anasazi Occupations Encountered in 

the 1989-1990 BLM Pueblito Survey 



Anasazi occupations were encountered in the 
1989-1990 Pueblito Survey at 15 site locations (Table 
81). Only the Simon Canyon and Shaft House study 
areas failed to reveal evidence of Anasazi occupa- 
tion. The occupations in the study areas are Early 
Developmental components which range from 
Basketmaker III Sambrito Phase to Early Pueblo I 
Piedra Phase, circa AD 400-900. No manifestations 
of the earlier Basketmaker II Los Pinos Phase or the 
later Pueblo I-Pueblo II, Late Piedra or Arboles 
phases, were encountered in this survey. 

Anasazi site types in the survey include encamp- 
ment/processing locations, apparent habitation 
areas, and rock art panels. All of the Anasazi sites, 
with the exception of the rock art panels, are located 
in or adjacent to open sage-grassland environments, 
probably due to the presence of deep alluvial soils 
suitable for horticulture. The only Anasazi sites 



found in proximity to the numerous Gobernador 
Phase sites on the benches and ledges of the rocky 
canyon walls are rock art panels, where evidence of 
Gobernador Phase utilization was also found. 

The cultural phases and temporal affiliations of 
the Anasazi sites found in this survey have been 
identified on the basis of the eastern San Juan An- 
asazi ceramic group sequence defined by Eddy 
(1966:438-470). All ceramic collections in this sur- 
vey are Basketmaker Ill-Pueblo I assemblages. 
Dendrochronological analysis indicates dates of AD 
400-700 for the Sambrito Phase, dates of circa AD 
700-850 for the Rosa Phase, and about AD 850-900 
for the early Piedra Phase (Eddy 1966:Table 7; Hall 
1944:Appendix F). It is probable that most of the 
Anasazi sites documented in this survey were occu- 
pied during the Late Sambrito to Early Piedra 
phases in the sixth through the ninth centuries. 



Evidence of Early Anasazi Occupations 



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260 



Chapter 13 

Recommendations for Management 



The principal objective of the 1989-1990 BLM 
Puebhto Survey was to obtain information on the 
content and condition of the cultural properties for 
the purpose of continued cultural resource manage- 
ment. The nine pueblito locations investigated dur- 
ing the project have been selected for special use 
evaluation and as model pueblito sites for the devel- 
opment of long-range management plans. Informa- 
tion concerning existing and potential adverse 
impacts to the cultural properties of the nine 
pueblito complexes is evaluated and specific recom- 
mendations for continued management are made in 
the following notes. 

Dendrochronological 
Considerations 

The collection of tree-ring dates from the 
pueblito sites of the Dinetah District is a research 
and management project that should be given top 
priority. The acquisition and analysis of tree-ring 
samples from the pueblitos is a cost-effective means 
of acquiring information for the interpretive pro- 
gram and is an essential element of continued re- 
search. A project to collect datable wood samples 
from the Dinetah District pueblitos is the most im- 
portant recommendation identified in this study. 

Only three of the nine pueblito sites surveyed have 
been sampled and dated by tree-ring analysis and 
two of these need additional sampling by proven- 
ience. Construction timbers which have the poten- 
tial to yield tree-ring dates exist at each of the 
pueblitos. These timbers are located on the 
planview maps of the pueblitos prepared for this 
survey. The condition of construction timbers at 
outlying sites is poor and there was only one location 
(LA 71597 in the Frances Canyon Complex) where 
potential tree-ring specimens were observed. It is 
estimated that there are about 60-90 datable limbers 
in the six undated pueblitos alone and up to 100 total 
specimens at the nine locations. This material rep- 
resents a most valuable cultural resource and has the 



potential to yield important chronological informa- 
tion on these Gobernador Phase occupations. 

A total of 28 tree-ring dates have been obtained 
from the Tapacito, Largo School, and Frances Can- 
yon pueblitos. No tree-ring dates are available for 
the Shaft House, Hooded Fireplace, Split Rock, 
Simon Canyon, Crow Canyon, or Hadlock's Crow 
Canyon pueblitos. Most of the tree-ring dates ob- 
tained from Frances Canyon and Tapacito were 
taken by Hall and Stallings in 1938 and during the 
1941 Columbia University Expedition. Additional 
dates were obtained from Tapacito in 1972 by J. 
Wilson of the Museum of New Mexico (Wilson and 
Warren 1972). The Navajo Land Claims Expedi- 
tions during the period from 1956 to 1959 obtained 
additional tree-ring dates from Frances Canyon and 
a set of four dates from the Largo School Pueblito 
(Stokes and Smiley 1963). Many of the tree-ring 
dates which have been obtained are not located as 
to provenience and additional unsampled materials 
remain at the dated sites. The status of tree-ring 
research and the potential for continued sampling is 
outlined in the following notes for each of the seven 
pueblitos under consideration. 

Simon Canyon 

No tree-ring dates have been obtained from the 
Simon Canyon Site. The roof of this boulder top 
structure remains intact so tree-ring cores could be 
obtained from at least six of the principal timbers. 
Tree-ring dating of this small site is of considerable 
interest since it is one of the few known pueblitos 
north of the San Juan River. 

Split Rock 

No tree-ring dates have been obtained from Split 
Rock. Wood preservation at the site is rather poor. 
However, there are about 10 timbers scattered on 
the talus slope below the site and in the overhang 
under the boulder and have the potential to yield 
dates. A I'ragmenl of a notched log ladder located 
directly below the pueblito and a beam in the area 
of forkstick hogan Feature 1 may also yield dates. 



Recommendations for Management 



Hooded Fireplace 

The fact that this site has not been tree-ring dated 
is curious given the abundance of construction tim- 
bers present. It is estimated that at least 20 timbers 
in the site complex have dating potential and should 
yield numerous dates. Portions of the pueblito roof 
remain intact and contain numerous timbers. Nu- 
merous timbers in good condition also lie scattered 
about the pueblito and on the talus slope below. 
There is a large forkstick beam located in the area 
of the Feature 9 ramada and a few scattered beams 
occur in the area of the masonry-based hogans Fea- 
tures 11, 12, and 13. It would be of interest to 
establish the occupational relationship of the hogan 
structures with the pueblito. The Hooded Fireplace 
Complex is one of the few sites identified as Type 1 
by Powers and Johnson (1987:131). This site type, 
characterized by large rooms and pueblo-like archi- 
tecture (as at Tapacito), is believed to be the earliest, 
dating to the very late seventeenth and very early 
eighteenth centuries. The dating of the Hooded 
Fireplace Pueblito would be most useful in the test- 
ing of this early site type theory. 

Shaft House 

Shaft House, despite its notoriety and frequent 
documentation, has not been the subject of tree-ring 
dating. An estimated 20 construction timbers in the 
site complex have the potential to yield tree-ring 
dates. However, most are stacked in the upper cliff 
house, creating a possible fire hazard and endanger- 
ing the many excellent beams located there. Preser- 
vation of the beams in the sheltered cliff house is 
excellent. There are also a few scattered beams on 
the talus slope below the site complex with the po- 
tential to yield dates. 

Tapacito 

A total of 18 dated tree-ring samples were taken 
from Tapacito and indicate construction episodes in 
1690 and 1694. This is the earliest dated pueblito in 
the Dinetah District. Sbc of the dates are from spec- 
ified areas of the pueblito structure while 12 are 
without provenience. It is probable that all of the 
dated specimens are from the pueblito since wood 
preservation in the outlying hogans is poor. 
Tapacito Pueblito is adequately dated and contin- 
ued sampling may prove redundant. 



Frances Canyon 

A total ofsix tree-ring dates from Frances Canyon 
are reported by Hannah in 1965. These dates span 
the period from 1717 to 1745. Three of the speci- 
mens were recovered from the area of the tower 
while the additional three are of unknown prove- 
nience. Fifteen to 20 potentially datable beams are 
scattered throughout the roomblock and on the talus 
slope below. The dating of these timbers by prove- 
nience may help establish the constructional se- 
quence within this rather extensive complex. 

Largo School 

Four tree-ring dates were obtained for the Largo 
School Pueblito as part of the Navajo Land Claims 
investigations. The dates obtained are 1721 + , 1736, 
1736, and 1737g. They were presumably obtained 
from the talus slope below and north of the upper 
pueblito, where sawn timbers were observed. There 
are an estimated 10 additional specimens scattered 
about the upper pueblito and on the north talus 
which have the potential to yield dates. Unfortu- 
nately, no constructional timber is preserved in the 
Lower Pueblito Complex. 

Crow Canyon 

No tree-ring dates have been obtained from the 
Crow Canyon Pueblito. There are an estimated 10 
to 20 beams scattered in the site area which have the 
potential to yield dates. These include a cluster of 
beams directly below the boulder top unit and tim- 
bers in Rooms 2 and 5 of the lower roomblock. 
Some of the constructional timbers have been 
placed against the boulder to provide access to the 
boulder top room and should be removed to a pro- 
tected area. There are also a number of beams and 
roofing slats which are stacked against a boulder 
south of the roomblock. 

Hadlock's Crow Canyon 

No tree-ring dates have been obtained from the 
site but there are four vertical posts in the south 
room and two other timbers in the area which have 
dating potential. 



262 



Chapter 13 



Artifact Collections: 
Recommendations for 
Management 

All of the pueblito sites inventoried have been 
subject to repeated surface collection. The surface 
samples documented in this survey clearly represent 
a fraction of the former assemblages. Both author- 
ized and unauthorized surface collections have se- 
verely depleted the present inventory and it is 
probable that the assemblages will be further de- 
pleted by continued and increased visitation to the 
sites. 

Artifacts collected from the sites are curated at 
the San Juan County Museum, the Navajo Tribal 
Museum, the Museum of New Mexico, the Bureau 
of Land Management, and the University of Colo- 
rado Museum. The nature and extent of these col- 
lections is undetermined. It is fortunate that these 
collections exist since much more of the material 
may have been removed during 80 years of unautho- 
rized scavanging. An inventory and analysis of the 
existing collections is therefore recommended. It is 
also recommended that additional eollections be 
made from the sites before the anticipated impact of 
continued and increased visitation. The material 
collected should be identified according to specific 
provenience and should be sampled without bias. 

It is probable that existing collections were of a 
biased nature and do not accurately reflect the ma- 
terial assemblages nor the intrasite variabilities. It 
is also probable that certain types of cultural mate- 
rial, such as bone and chipped stone debitage, have 
not been collected. The accurate definition of sur- 
face material samples such as that completed in the 
present survey serve to mitigate this bias. 

There are certain aspects of analysis which cannot 
be completed in the field and which normally re- 
quire laboratory analysis. The most glaring omis- 
sion in the definition of the pueblito material 
assemblages is the identification of faunal remains. 
Bone material, well-preserved and abundant, is 
present at many of the pueblito sites investigated. 
This faunal material represents a most valuable cul- 
tural resource as it has the potential to yield consid- 
erable information on the nature of Gobernador 
subsistence and economy. Ungulate species arc 
common, but the incidence of particular animals and 
the relative frequencies of domestic and wild species 



is unknown. The identification of faunal remains 
from the pueblito sites would prove most informa- 
tive in our understanding of the lifeways and cultural 
ecology of the Gobernador populations. The bone 
material present at these sites is susceptible to dam- 
age by continued surface exposure and fool traffic. 
The collection of this material from selected prove- 
niences at the pueblitos is therefore recommended. 
The identification of this faunal material is a cost 
effective research project which promises to yield 
considerable information. 

The lithic assemblages are defined in this report 
(Chapters 2-10) in an attribute analysis prepared in 
the field by Paul Grigg. This is the first study in 
which a systematic definition of lithic assemblages 
from the pueblitos and associated sites has been 
completed. The relative infrequency of chipped 
stone artifacts at the pueblito sites is probably due 
to the use of iron tools obtained in trade. There are 
nonetheless some chipped stone materials and vari- 
ous hammerstones and groundstone tools. It is most 
probable that previous collections from the pueblito 
sites neglected the collection of lithic materials. It is 
recommended, therefore, that samples of chipped 
stone cultural material be collected from the sites 
and analyzed. 

There are, in addition, certain materials which 
justify collection for preservation or specialized 
analysis. Artifacts from five locations were collected 
during this survey, as recommended by the BLM 
Farmington Resource Area Archeologist. These ar- 
tifacts include an iron ax from the Frances Canyon 
Complex (lO No. 10), fragments of a dried pumpkin 
from the Simon Canyon Complex (LA 71581), some 
weaving tools from a cleft above Split Rock (LA 
71599), a few pieces of clinker and faceted hemitite 
from the Tapacito middens, and three fragmented 
utility vessels from the Frances Canyon Complex 
(LA 71594). 

Various types of metal trade goods have been 
recovered from pueblito sites in the Dinelah District 
including axes, knife blades, copper bells, brass ban- 
gles, copper buttons, metal crosses, a lead disc, a gun 
part, and parts of a bridle (Carlson 1965). All of 
these artifacts were found during excavation. The 
only iron artifacts found in the 1989-1990 BLM Sur- 
vey were the iron ax at Frances Canyon (I() No. 10) 
and an iron fragment from midden 1 at Tapacito. It 
is probable that other metal artifacts exist in subsur- 
face context at the pueblito sites. These metallic 



263 



Recommendations for Management 



trade goods are of considerable importance to our 
understanding of colonial life in the Dinetah fron- 
tier. Metal artifacts from the sites may be located by 
means of a metal detector. These important cultural 
resources are susceptible to possible looting, espe- 
cially by collection with metal detectors. 

It is recommended, therefore, that a metal detec- 
tor examination be made by the BLM for each 
pueblito under investigation here. These examina- 
tions should determine the specific location of all 
metal artifacts as a basis to evaluate the unautho- 
rized use of metal detectors by looters or as an aspect 
of problem-oriented test excavations. The metal 
trade goods at the pueblitos are a valuable cultural 
resource and it is important that they be collected 
and curated before they are removed by looters. 

Revision of National Register 
Nominations 

A revision to the National Register listing to in- 
clude all associated sites in each pueblito complex is 
recommended. This revision would involve an ex- 
pansion of the National Register boundaries to in- 
clude all of the associated properties identified in 
the 1989-1990 Survey. The comprehensive listing 
would recognize the significance of these site com- 
plexes and the need for their continued preservation 
and interpretation. 

Historic American Buildings 
Survey and Continued 
Documentation of the Pueblitos 

An Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) 
of the pueblitos was completed in the summer of 
1990. The HABS project, conducted by the Na- 
tional Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, pro- 
vided comprehensive architectural documentation 
(LouAnn Jacobson, personal communication). The 
HABS project recognized, whenever possible, the 
associated features and sites within each pueblito 
complex. However, the primary objective of HABS 
is to document architectural elements such as stand- 
ing walls, intact roofs, doorways, etc. Rectified pho- 
tographs, meeting HABS standards, were taken of 
all the pueblitos reported on here, including the 
Crow Canyon petroglyphs, but excluding Hadlock's 



Crow Canyon. 

Stereo photographic or photogrammetric re- 
cords of each pueblito are also recommended. Fur- 
ther definition of the pueblitos, especially for 
interpretive use, might include the preparation of 
artist renditions. A brochure to be distributed on- 
site could also be prepared in which selected ele- 
ments of the site complex are discussed. 

Site Specific 
Recommendations 

Shaft House 

The Shaft House complex is subject to frequent 
visitation, and continued monitoring and stabiliza- 
tion maintenance is required. An effort should be 
made to collect tree-ring samples and surface arti- 
facts according to provenience. 

There are two problem areas in the site which 
should be addressed. The original log ladder within 
the shaft was unfortunately stolen about 1983 and 
now only a juniper post, recently placed in the shaft, 
allows visitors to climb into the upper cliff house. 
Visitors who climb the shaft have difficulty making 
the ascent and this has caused attritional wear on the 
wood frame of the upper hatchway. A new notched 
log ladder should be placed in the shaft to prevent 
continued damage to the hatchway. 

Numerous wood beams and considerable pack 
rat debris are in the interior of the upper cliff house. 
This material is a potential fire hazard (a fire at 
Hooded Fireplace sometime between 1959 and 1974 
destroyed Room 2), and there is evidence that visi- 
tors have built small fires in the upper chamber. A 
fire here could destroy the beams and adversely 
impact the cliff house structure. A small sign should 
be placed in the chamber which informs the visitor 
of this potential hazard. 

Most of the sites in the Shaft House Complex are 
in good and stable condition. One structure near the 
mesa top trail (Feature 1 at LA 71578) is, however, 
subject to active erosion. If test excavations are 
initiated at Shaft House this feature should be sal- 
vaged. There is also a hearth, LA 71580, located in 
the immediate area of the road turn-out on the mesa 
top which has been impacted by vehicle traffic. This 
site should be excavated or protected by construc- 
tion of a parking barrier near the hearth. 



264 



Chapter 13 



Frances Canyon 

Provenienced tree-ring and artifact samples 
should be collected. No other specific actions be- 
yond continued maintenance and monitoring are 
required. A cache of three Dinetah Gray vessels 
(LA 71594) found under a rock some 200 m south- 
east of the pueblito was excavated and the vessels 
were removed and curated (Appendix A). 

Simon Canyon 

Other than the acquisition of tree-ring samples, 
no additional actions beyond continued mainte- 
nance and monitoring are necessary. 

Tapacito 

This site is in good condition. It has been well- 
dated and additional tree-ring analysis would prove 
redundant. However, provenienced artifact collec- 
tions should be made before surface materials are 
depleted any further. A test excavation should also 
be completed in the depression directly east of the 
pueblito identify the nature of this feature. 

Largo School 
Other than continued maintenance and monitor- 
ing, the Largo School Site requires only the collec- 
tion of surface artifacts and the sampling of 
additional tree-ring samples. 

Split Rock 

The Split Rock Pueblito Complex is located on 
the upper east wall of Largo Canyon in a secluded 
area which receives little visitation. Most of the site 
complex remains intact and undisturbed. Tree-ring 
samples should be obtained from the site in an effort 
to date the complex. There are four middens (Fea- 
tures 3, 6, 8 and 12) in the immediate area of the 
pueblito which are subject to erosion. Features 8 
and 12 are cut by a small arroyo and the Feature 12 
midden is actively eroding. The Feature 3 midden 
is exposed to surface erosion and foot traffic and 
even suffered additional impacts from the survey 
activities. Stabilization efforts should attempt to 
avoid this area. Impacts could be avoided by con- 
struction of a wooden pathway over Feature 3 and 
by excavation of both Feature 3 and Feature 12. 

Hooded Fireplace 

Tree-ring specimens and artifact samples should 
be gathered from the Hooded Fireplace Complex. 
Other than continued maintenance and monitoring. 



no additional actions are recommended for the site. 

Crow Canyon 

The Crow Canyon Pueblito was damaged by ero- 
sion, but construction of diversion channels by the 
BLM in 1975 stabilized this condition. The east 
room (Room 2) in the lower roomblock is exten- 
sively eroded and the walls need to be stabilized. 
Tree-ring samples should also be collected from the 
site area. 

There is a bell-shaped stone pit at LA 77871 which 
has recently collapsed and is now open. Any possi- 
ble contents of this pit are now exposed to the ele- 
ments. Testing of this pit is recommended before it 
is vandalized or destroyed by the elements. 

Hadiock's Crow Canyon 

The collection of tree-ring specimens is the only 
recommendation for LA 55830. The extensive rock 
art site (LA 77874) was photographed by the Na- 
tional Park Service in the summer of 1990. It should 
be noted that the rock art extends well to the east of 
the study area and some of the rock part panels 
appear to be partially buried. Excavations at the 
base of these panels may reveal additional glyphs. 

Editors' Note 

Since completion of the pueblito inventory, the 
BLM has proceeded with protection and manage- 
ment of the pueblitos and the pueblito complexes. 
BLM entered into a Cooperative Agreement with 
the University of Arizona to conduct extensive tree- 
ring analyses at the sites documented in this report, 
as well as other pueblitos in the Dinetah Di-Strict. All 
the pueblitos reported on here now have tree-ring 
dates. Tree-ring dates are available from Ron 
Towner, University of Arizona, or from the BLM, 
Albuquerque District Office. 

In addition, the BLM recently awarded a contract 
to conduct surface collection and metal detector 
survey in priority areas. Testing and surface collec- 
tions will be completed in 1992. 

Stabilization maintenance was completed at Shaft 
House and Frances Ruins in 1991. Additional main- 
tenance will be conducted at the Crow Canyon and 
Largo School pueblitos in the Fall of 1991. 

H ABS photography will be completed at six more 
pueblitos and brochures will be available on-site by 
the end of Fiscal Year 1992. 



265 



References 



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Southwest Museum, Santa Ana. 

Baily, Flora 

1940 Navajo Foods and Cooking Methods. American Anthropologist 42:270-290. 

Brew, Alan P. 

1973 An Archeological Survey of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project Main Canal and Adjacent 
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Schoenwetter, Stewart Peckham and Alan P. Brew. Unpublished manuscript on file. Museum of New 
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Brugge, David M. 

1963 Navajo Pottery and Ethnohistory. Navajo Tribal Museum Series No. 2. Window Rock, Arizona. 

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1982 Apache and Navajo Ceramics. In "Southwestern Ceramics, a Comparative Review," edited by 
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1975 Stabilization Workbooks. Unpublished manuscripts on file. Bureau of Land Management, 
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Carlson, Roy L. 

1965 Eighteenth Century Navajo Fortresses of the Gobernador District. University of Colorado 
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Correll, Lee, and David M. Brugge 

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Correll, Lee, and Ronald Kurtz 

1957 and 1959 Navajo Land Claims, Indian Claims Commission. Plaintiffs' Exhibit 520- P. Docket 229. 
Site reports and photographs. Field Book 10, p. 127. Manuscript on file, Museum of New Mexico, 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe. 



The Pueblito as a Site Complex 



Dittert, Alfred E., Jr. 

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Dittert, Alfred E., Jr., James J. Hester, and Frank W. Eddy 

1961 An Archaeological Survey of the Navajo Reservoir District, Northwestern New Mexico. Mono- 
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Eddy, Frank W. 

1966 Prehistory in the Navajo Reservoir District, Northwestern New Mexico. Museum of New Mexico 
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Enloe, James G., William C. Allan, Paul S. Grigg, Andrew T. Smith, and Stewart Peckham 

1973 An Archaeological Inventory and Evaluation of Some Prehistoric and Historic Sites in the Upper 
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Farmer, Malcomb 

1942 Navajo Archaeology of the Upper Blanco and Largo Canyons, Northern New Mexico. American 
Antiquity 8 (l):65-79. 

Gunnerson, James H. 

1960 An Introduction to Plains Apache Archeology; The Dismal River Aspect. Anthropological 
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1969 Apache Archaeology in Northeastern New Mexico. Amercian Antiquity 34 (l):23-39. 

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Hadlock, Harry 

1958, 1959, 1969 San Juan Archeological Society notes and site records on file, Archeological Records 
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1971 Rock Art and Archaeological Site Survey of Crow Canyon. San Juan County Museum Associ- 
tion. Unpublished manuscript on file, Archeological Records Management System, Historic Preser- 
vation Division, State of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 

Hall, Edward T., Jr. 

1944 Early Stockaded Settlements in the Gobernador District, New Mexico. Columbia Studies in 
Archaeology and Ethnology 2(1). Columbia University Press, New York. 

1951 Southwestern Dated Ruins No. 6. Tree-Ring Bulletin 17 (4):26-28. 

Hall, Edward T. and W.S. Stallings 

1951 Site records on file, Archeological Records Management System, Historic Preservation Division, 
State of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 



268 



References 



Hannah, John W. 

1965 Appendix I: Tree-Ring Dates from the Morris Sites, Gobernador District, New Mexico. In 
"Eighteenth Century Navajo Fortresses of the Gobernador District," by Roy L. Carlson. University 
of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology No. 10: 109-113,77!^ Earl Morris Papers No. 2. University 
of Colorado Press, Boulder. 

Haskell, J. Loring 

1975 The Navajo in the Eighteenth Century: An Investigation Involving Anthropological Archeology 
in the San Juan Basin, Northwest New Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University, 
Pullman. 

Helm, June (editor) 

1981 In "Subartic." Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6, William G. Sturtevant, general 
editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 

Hester, James J. 

1962 Early Navajo Migrations and Acculturation in the Southwest. Museum of New Mexico Papers in 
Anthropology No. 6. Santa Fe. 

Hester, James J. , and Joel L. Shiner 

1963 Studies at Navajo Period Sites in the Navajo Reservoir District. Museum of New Mexico Papers 
in Anthropology No. 9. Santa Fe. 

Hill, W.W. 

1938 The Agricultural and Hunting Methods of the Navajo Indians. Yale University Publication in 
Anthropology No. 18. Yale University Press, New Haven. 

1940 Some Navajo Culture Changes During Two Centuries (with a translation of the early eighteenth 
century Rabal manuscript). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections No. 100:395-415. Washington, 
DC. 

Keur, Dorothy 

1941 Big Bead Mesa: An Archeological Study of Navajo Acculturation, 1775-1812. Memoirs of the 
Society for American Archeology No. 1. 

1944 A Chapter in Navajo-Pueblo Relations. American Antiquity 10 (l):75-86. 

Kluckhohn, Clyde, W.W. Hill, and Lucy W. Kluckhohn 

1971 Navajo Material Culture. Harvard University Press, Chicago. 

Lester, Curtis 

1981 Monitoring Projects for Simon Site and Shaft Ruin. Unpublished manuscript on file, Bureau of 
Land Management, Farmington, NM. 

Marshall, Michael P. 

1985 The Excavation of the Cortez C02 Pipeline Project Sites, 1982-1983. Office of Contract Archeol- 
ogy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 



269 



The Pueblito as a Site Complex 



Pcckham, Stuart 

1972Site records on file, Archeological Records Management System, Historic Preservation Division, 
State of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 

Petty, Paul 

1972 Crow Canyon Archeological District, National Register Nomination. Unpublished manuscript 
on file, Archeological Records Management System, Historic Preservation Division, State of New 
Mexico, Santa Fe. 

Powers, Margaret A., and Byron P. Johnson 

1987 Defensive Sites of Dinetah. Cultural Resources Series No. 2. USDI, New Mexico Bureau of Land 
Management, Albuquerque. 

Reeve, Frank D. 

1957 Seventeenth Century Navajo-Spanish Relations. New Mexico Historical Review 31:36-52. 

1953 Navajo-Spanish Wares, 1680-1720. New Mexico Historical Review 33:204-231. 

1959 The Navajo-Spanish Peace: 1720s to 1770s. New Mexico Historical Review 34:9-40. 

Reiter, Paul 

1938 "The Jemez Pueblo of Unshagi, New Mexico, Part II." University of New Mexico Bulletin No. 
326. Albuquerque. 

Robinson, William J., Bruce G. Harrill, and Richard L. Warren 

1974 Tree-Ring Dates from New Mexico Area B, Chaco-Gobernador Area. Laboratory of Tree-Ring 
Research, University of Arizona, Tucson. 

Roesell, Robert 

1983 Dinetah: Navajo History V, No. II. Rough Rock Demonstration School, Rough Rock, Arizona. 

Schaafsma, Curtis F. 

1979 Tlie Cenilo Site (AR-4): A Piedra Lwnbre Phase Settlement at Abiquiu Reseivoir. School of 
American Research, Santa Fe. 

Schaafsma, Polly 

1980 Indian Rock Art of the Southwest. School of American Research and the University of New 
Mexico Press, Santa Fe and Albuquerque. 

Simmons, Marc, and Frank Turley 

1980 Southwest Colonial Ironwork: Tlie Spanish Blacksmithing Tradition from Texas to California. 
Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe. 

Sleight, Frederick 

1953 Navajo Land Claims, Indian Claims Commission. Plaintiffs' Exhibit 520-P, Docket 229. Site 
reports and photographs. Volume 6, Field Book 20. Manuscript on file. Museum of New Mexico, 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe. 



270 



References 



Smiley, T.L. 

1951 A Summary of Tree-Ring dates from some Southwestern Archeological Sites. University of 
Arizona Bulletin 22(4), Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research 5. 

Stallings, W.S. 

1937 Southwestern Dated Ruins I. Tree-Ring Bulletin 4 (2):3-5. 

Stokes, Marian A., and Terah L. Smiley 

1963 Tree-Ring Dates from the Navajo Land Claims I. The Northern Sector. Tree-Ring Bulletin 25 
(3-4):8-18. 

Van Valkenburg, Richard F. 

1937 Navajo Land Claims, Indian Claims Commission. Plaintiffs' Exhibit 520-P, Docket 229. Site 
reports and photographs. Field Book 11, p. 61. Manuscript on file. Museum of New Mexico, 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe. 

1941 Dine Bikeyah. USDI, Office of Indian Affairs, Navajo Service, Window Rock, Arizona. 

1947 The Trail to the Tower of the Standing God. Desert Magazine 10:16-18. 

Van Valkenburg, Richard F., and Bernadine Whitegoat 

1956 Navajo Land Claims, Indian Claims Commission. Plaintiffs' Exhibit 520-P, Docket 229. Site 
reports and photographs, Volume 6, Field Book 15. Manuscript on file, Museum of New Mexico, 
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe. 

Vivian, Gwinn 

1960 Navajo Archaeology of Chacra Mesa, New Mexico. Master's thesis, University of New Mexico, 
Albuquerque. 

Walt, Henry J., and Michael P. Marshall 

1984 Early Athapaskan Sites in the Puertocito District of the Upper Rio Salado Drainage: Ancestry 
of the Alamo Navajo. Unpublished site data on file, Archeological Records Management System, 
Historic Preservation Division, State of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 

Wilson, John P., and A.H. Warren 

1972 Site records on file, Archeological Records Management System, Historic Preservation Division, 
State of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 

1974 LA 2298: The Earliest Pueblito?.^^^/?^// 2 (]):8-26. 



271 



Appendix A 

The Excavation of a 

Navajo Gobernador Phase Cache 

in the Frances Canyon Pueblito 

Site Complex 



Introduction 



A cache of three Gobernador Phase, Navajo cu- 
linary vessels was discovered in April 1989 during 
the BLM archeological survey of the Frances Can- 
yon Pueblito Complex. The cache ( LA 71594) was 
found under the overhang of a large boulder on the 
talus slope, approximately 2 m southeast of the 
pueblito. Large sherds from three broken culinary 
vessels were exposed under the north side of the 
boulder. A few sherds were scattered on the slope 
below the cache. The cache, although somewhat 
fragmented, was believed to be largely in sitii and 
partially buried. The possibility that other artifacts 
were buried in the cache was also considered. 

The cache was in a rather exposed location near 
the Frances Canyon Pueblito. This area receives 
considerable visitation and the cache was consid- 
ered susceptible to discovery and possible unautho- 
rized collection. The excavation of this cache and 
collection of the artifacts was, therefore, proposed 
and carried out. The excavation of the site was com- 
pleted in December of 1989 by Michael Marshall 
under contract with the BLM. The excavations re- 
vealed the presence of three partially restorable 
Dinetah culinary vessels. No other artifacts were 
found. The vessels included fragments of a Dinetah 
Gray Striated jar, a Dinetah Gray Striated-Incised 
ves.sel, and the basal area of a (jobernador Indented 
olla. A description of the excavations and the vessels 
recovered from the Frances Canyon cache is pre- 
sented here. 



Description of the Cache Site 

This cache of three partially restorable Navajo 
Gray vessels was found during the 1989 BLM Survey 
of the Frances Canyon Complex. The cache was 
located under a large boulder on the talus slope, 
approximately 200 m southeast of the pueblito. It is 
most probable that the cache was associated with the 
Frances Canyon Pueblito, occupied during the early 
to middle eighteenth century. The Frances Canyon 
Pueblito, which contains approximately 40 rooms, is 
one of the largest pueblitos in the Dinetah District. 
There are a series of outlying sites located adjacent 
to the pueblito and are probable components of the 
community complex. These include four sweat 
lodges, two hearths, one oven-hearth, one sherd 
scatter, a rock art site, a forkstick hogan habitation, 
and two caches. An additional cache and a series of 
outlying burials was also found by Earl Morris in 1915 
(Carlson 1965:38-44). 

The Frances Canyon cache contained fragments 
of three utility vessels. No other associated cultural 
material was found in the cache area. The vessels 
had apparently been placed on the surface under the 
north side of a large boulder. A cluster of large 
sherds, surrounded by a few stones, was found on the 
surface, and an eroded scatter of smaller sherds 
extended down the talus slope below the boulder. 
The entire area of the overhang, and the cracks 
adjacent to the boulder below the cache were exca- 
vated. The sherds scattered on the slope below the 
cache were also collected. It is probable that the 
three vessels present at the cache were intact when 
placed under the boulder. The exposure of the ves- 



Frances Canyon Complex Cache 



sels to erosion, however, resulted in their fragmen- 
tation and dispersal. 

Excavations were completed in a 4 x 1.25 m area 
under and adjacent to the overhang and in the cracks 
adjacent to the boulder, for a distance of 1 m below 
the cache (Figure 100). The fill present in the exca- 
vation area above the sterile clay substratum was 
removed and sifted. The maximum depth of the 
excavation in the overhang was 50 cm. Most of the 
artifacts were concentrated in the upper 10 cm of the 
fill. However a few sherds, including the base of the 
indented vessel, were found to a depth of 30 cm. The 
fill in the cache was alluvial sediment deposited 
under the boulder from the talus slope above. Part 
of the cache was buried by alluvial fill, while the 
margins were subject to erosion. 

Most of the sherds were found in a 1 m area under 
the overhang and directly adjacent to the boulder. A 
few sandstone blocks, 10-30 cm in size, had been 
placed in a roughly semi-circular pattern around the 
sherds. These stones may have been placed in the 
cache to protect or partially conceal the vessels. A 
few scattered sherds were found in the fill to a depth 
of 30 cm. The base of the indented vessel was found 
in a cluster of contiguous sherds to the northwest 
and at a depth of 30 cm. A total of 150 sherds from 
three vessels was recovered in the excavation and 
from the slope below. 

The fill in the excavated area was alluvial sedi- 
ment from the talus slope above. No charcoal or 
other cultural sediment was present. Pollen and flo- 
tation soil samples were obtained from the fill within 
the base of the indented vessel. The flotation sample 
revealed the presence of unburned juniper twigs and 
leaves. This botanical material was probably depos- 
ited in the area by alluvial action after the cache was 
in place. Analysis of the pollen sample is not recom- 
mended since the sediment in the vessel is post-de- 
positional material. 

The excavations indicate that the cache consisted 
of three utility vessels placed on the surface under a 
large boulder. If this had been the site of a burial, 
previously disturbed by Morris in 1915, there should 
have been bits of bone or other material in the fill. 
Another cache, consisting of a Vizcayan-style iron 
ax, was found in a crack in the cliff about 50 m to the 
south (Frances Canyon lO No. 10). The Frances 
Canyon cache (LA 71594) is unusual, in that it con- 
tains Dinetah Striated-Incised and Indented vessels, 
both of which are very rare in the Dinetah District. 



Description of the Vessels 

The Frances Canyon cache contained fragments 
of three partially restorable Navajo culinary vessels. 
The vessels were placed in an overhang under a talus 
side boulder and were subject to marginal erosion. 
Many sherds from the vessels were found scattered 
on the talus slope below the boulder. Only portions 
of these vessels, represented by 150 sherds, were 
recovered and could be restored. The sherd frag- 
ments collected from the cache and the talus slope, 
represent from one-tenth to one-third of the vessels. 
The excavated vessels include part of a large 
Dinetah Striated-Incised olla, a small and thin- 
walled Dinetah Striated olla and the base of large 
Gobernador Indented jar. 

Dinetah Gray vessels, similar to those found in the 
Frances Canyon cache, have been described pre- 
viously by Brugge (1963,1981 and 1982), Carlson 
(1965), Marshall (1985), Vivian (1960) and others. 
Both the Striated-Incised vessel and the Indented 
vessel are infrequent specimens in the Dinetah as- 
semblages. Indeed, only one sherd of indented ma- 
terial was found in the 1989 survey of the Frances 
Canyon Complex (4% of the Frances Canyon 
Pueblito sample). Dinetah vessels with incised rim 
edges, such as those found in the Frances Canyon 
cache, have not been previously found in the Dinetah 
District ( Marshall 1985: 154). The Frances Canyon 
cache, therefore, contains a rather unusual collec- 
tion of vessels. 

Dinetah Scored and Incised Vessel 
Vessel Form and Fragmentation: This vessel is a 
large wide-mouthed olla of typical Navajo Dinetah 
form. Lower body sherds suggest that the basal area 
of this vessel was pointed. The vessel is represented 
by 112 sherds, which make up approximately one- 
third of the olla. Some of the sherds (20 pieces) are 
large, ranging from 10-20 cm in size. Four large rim 
sherds are present, which represent about one-third 
of the rim circumference. The diameter of the vessel, 
at the rim, is 22.5 cm. 

Distribution: Most of the large sherds from this 
vessel were found in the cache under the overhang, 
while the smaller, fragmented pieces were found 
scattered on the slope below the rock. A total of 48 
sherds were found in the cache and 64 sherds were 
found on the slope below the rock. 



274 



Appendix A 



Excavation limits 





East - West cross-section 




Clay substrate 
North - South cross-section 



Figure 100. LA 71594: Cache, Frances Canyon Complex. 



275 



Frances Canyon Complex Cache 



Surface Treatment: The exterior of this vessel is 
striated and the interior is scraped and smoothed. 
The exterior striations appear to be diagonal to the 
rim. These striations are most conspicuous on the 
middle and lower body sherds. The interior surface 
is mostly scraped and smoothed, although horizon- 
tal striations appear on the upper 6 cm of the neck. 

Incised Decoration: This vessel is also embellished 
with incised sinuous vertical lines from the rim onto 
the lower body (Figure 101). These lines are 1 mm 
thick and are placed at 12 cm intervals around the 
vessel body. 

Rim Edge Decoration: The rim edge of this vessel 
is decorated with diagonal incised lines, spaced at 
1.5-2 cm intervals. 

Carbonization: A patina of soot is present on the 
exterior of many sherds, indicating that the vessel 
had a culinary function. 

Repair Holes: Two sets of drilled holes are present, 
indicating that the vessel had cracked and was re- 
paired. 

Wall: The wall of this vessel ranges from 4-7 mm, 
with a mean thickness of 6 mm. 

Paste: The paste is medium hard and varies from a 
light to dark gray color. The temper is medium 
coarse and consists of clear and opaque quartz and 
appears in grain clusters, suggesting a sandstone 
source. 



The Indented Vessel 
Possible Jemez Utility Ware 
Vessel Form and Fragmentation: Twenty-five 
sherds of an indented olla, representing one-tenth to 
one-fifth of the vessel, were recovered from the 
Frances Canyon cache. Most of the base of the vessel 
is represented by contiguous basal and lower body 
sherds. No rim sherds or upper body sherds are 
present. The vessel is a medium- to large-sized olla 
with a rounded base. The base is rotund and con- 
trasts to the typical pointed base of Navajo Dinetah 
Gray. 



Distribution and Associated Samples: Most of the 
vessel (23 sherds) was found in sitii under the rock 
shelter, while only two sherds were found scattered 
on the slope below the rock. Most of the base re- 
mained intact, although fragmented, in the lower fill 
on the east cache area. A flotation soil sample was 
obtained from the fill within the vessel base, but this 
yielded mostly non-carbonized juniper twigs and 
leaves and only one small bit of charcoal. 

Surface Treatment: The exterior surface is in- 
dented and the interior is scraped and smoothed. 
The indentations near the base are placed diagonal 
to the vertical axis and are 2 cm in length. On the 
lower-middle body of the vessel, the indentations are 
placed horizontal to the vertical axis and are 1 cm in 
length. No coil sutures are visible. The interior sur- 
face of the vessel is well smoothed. 

Carbonization: Many sherds exhibit a patina of 
carbon on the exterior surface, indicating a culinary 
function. There is also a caked black and lustrous 
patina on the interior basal surface and is probably 
carbonized food material. 

Construction: A 10 cm area on the lower exterior 
base of the vessel is smoothed, as if the vessel was 
constructed within a turnerette or puki. There is 
faint evidence of indentations on this base, indicat- 
ing that the vessel was started as a coiled disk and 
then pressed in a turnerette container. 

Wall: The vessel wall varies from 5-8 mm thick. 

Paste: The paste is a brown to gray and is rather soft 
and friable. The temper is medium coarse and con- 
sists of opaque and clear angular quartz inclusions. 

Dinetah Scored Vessel 
Vessel Form and Fragmentation: This vessel is a 
medium-sized Dinetah Scored olla represented by 
13 sherds, including rim and neck sherds. It is esti- 
mated that one-tenth of the vessel was present. The 
four rim sherds found are contiguous and represent 
one-third of the rim circumference. The vessel ap- 
pears to be a typical Dinetah Gray olla with a wide 
mouth and probable pointed base. The diameter of 
this vessel at the rim is 15 cm. 



276 



Appendix A 



Incised rim 




1 cm 
I I I 



Figure 101. Dinetah Scored-lncised vessel fragment. 



277 



Frances Canyon Complex Cache 



Distribution: Nine sherds were found in situ in the 
cache area and four sherds were found scattered on 
the slope below the rock shelter. 

Surface Treatment: Both the interior and exterior 
surfaces arc striated. The exterior surface exhibits 
both horizontal and diagonal striations and is par- 
tially smoothed/obliterated. The interior surface, at 
the neck, has horizontal striations. 

Carbonization: Many sherds exhibit a carbon pa- 
tina, indicative of a culinary function, on the exterior 
surface. 

Vessel Wail: The wall of this vessel is very thin and 
ranges from 3-4 mm thick. 

Rim: The rim edge is thin and unembellished. No 
fillets or other rim or neck embellishments are pres- 
ent. 

Paste and Temper: The paste is reduced and ranges 
from light to dark gray. The paste is hard, indicating 
that this vessel was well-fired. The temper is fine 
angular quartz. 

Ceramic Observations 

The Frances Canyon cache site contained three 
fragmented and partially restorable culinary vessels. 
It is probable that all three vessels were once intact 
and were placed on the surface under the rock shel- 
ter. The vessels were, however, subsequently broken 
and scattered by erosional action. Cached ceramic 
vessels are often found in proximity to early Navajo 
sites (Hester 1962:46). 

Vessels representing Dinetah Gray Scored, 
Dinetah Gray Scored-Incised and Gobernador In- 
dented (possible Puebloan Indented) types were 
found in the Frances Canyon cache. Both the 
Scored-Incised and the Indented types are very rare 
in the Dinetah District. The presence of two unusual 
vessels in a single cache at Frances Canyon is rather 
curious. Indeed, Indented material is very rare in the 
Dinetah District south of the San Juan River (Carl- 
son 1965:65). In addition, no rim edge-incised Nav- 
ajo vessels have been previously found in the 
Dinetah District (Marshall 1985:154). Perhaps the 
vessels present in the Frances Canyon cache were 
selected because of their unusual character. 



Gobernador Indented materials are recognized 
as a variant of Dinetah Gray (Dittert 1958:20 and 
Brugge 1963:5-7). The style is considered to be a 
Navajo copy of Jemez Utility Ware (Carlson 
1965:65) or a product of early Pueblo refugee pop- 
ulations (Brew 1973:24). Most Gobernador In- 
dented materials have been found in early sites in the 
drainages north of the San Juan River. The type is 
recognized as an element of the earliest Navajo 
ceramic horizon (Eddy 1966:453), with an estimated 
end date of AD 1720 (Brugge 1982:289). The paste, 
temper, and vessel form of Gobernador Indented is 
said to be similar to Dinetah Gray Plain (Brugge 
1963:4). It has been suggested, however, that many 
vessels identified as Gobernador Indented are, in 
fact, Jemez Utility Ware (Marshall 1985:157). 

The globular form and rounded base of the In- 
dented vessel found in the Frances Canyon Cache, 
is unlike the pointed bottom forms of the Dinetah 
Gray series. The form is, on the other hand, very 
similar to protohistoric Puebloan vessels from 
Jemez Pueblo and elsewhere. It is possible, there- 
fore, that the Indented vessel found in the Frances 
Canyon cache is of Puebloan manufacture. The ves- 
sel may have been either imported into the region or 
manufactured by resident Puebloan refugees. 

The possibility that intrusive Jemez or other 
Pueblo populations occasionally manufactured in- 
dented culinary vessels in the Dinetah District is 
likely. It should, however, be noted that such manu- 
facture was most common in the sites north of the 
San Juan prior to the Pueblo Indian Revolt, presum- 
ably before the major infiux of Pueblo populations 
into the region. There are numerous sites north of 
the San Juan River where quantities of Jemez Black- 
on-white have been found (Dittert 1958 and Eddy 
1966). Many of these sites appear to have concen- 
trated quantities of indented utility ware (Marshall 
1985:157). These factors seem to suggest that much 
of the Gobernador Indented materials found in the 
Upper San Juan is of Jemez manufacture. 

Jemez culinary vessels in the Upper Jemez Moun- 
tain District are reported to be tempered with vitre- 
ous pyroxene, andesite, or tuffa (Reiter 1938:103), 
although quartz sand tempered utility material, sim- 
ilar to the Gobernador Indented material, is known 
to exist in the sites of the lower Jemez drainage area 
(personal communication, Michael Elliot). 

Certain types of plastic embellishment, some of 
which mimic a coil indented treatment, may be ex- 



278 



Appendix A 



amples of Navajo manufacture. These types, if they 
are of Navajo manufacture, should appear on typical 
pointed bottom Dinetah forms. The indented vessel 
from the cache has a globular form and rounded 
base, which is similar to the Puebloan vessels. 

Grayware vessels, with incised decorations and 
rim edges, appear with most frequency in Navajo 
settlements of ninteenth and twentieth century affin- 
ity (Brugge 1981:88). The absence of incised mate- 
rials previously documented in the Dinetah region 
led Marshall (1985:154) to conclude that the style 
developed after the abandonment of the region, 
about 1775 or 1800. The presence of an Incised 
Dinetah vessel in the Frances Canyon Cache, how- 
ever, suggests that the style was infrequently used in 
the Gobernador Phase. The incised rim edge style 
may have been adopted by copying Plains and 
Plains-influenced traditions. The style is present in 
protohistoric industries of the Taos-Picuris, 
Jicarilla, and the Dismal River Complex (Gunner- 
son 1960:164). 



Dating the Cache 



No datable carbon, tree-ring, or archeomagnetic 
materials were found in association with the Frances 
Canyon Cache. It is not possible to determine, 
therefore, the specific temporal affinity of the cache. 
A relative date for the cache may, however, be de- 
fined by the probable association with the Frances 
Canyon Pueblito and by certain stylistic ceramic 
attributes. Tree-ring dates which span the period 
from AD 1717 to 1745 have been obtained from the 
nearby Frances Canyon Pueblito (Robinson, 
Harrill, and Warren 1974:73). By means of probable 
association, we might assume that the cache dates to 
the first half of the eighteenth century, during the 
period when the Frances Canyon Complex was in- 
habited. 

The ceramic stylistic traits of the incised rim edge 
and the indented surface texture represented on 
vessels from the Frances Canyon cache, also offer 
some, although confiicting, indication of temporal 
affinity. 

Incised rim edges according to Brugge (1981:88) 
"seem to date about the same as fillets" which arc 



most common in the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies, but "...they are too rare to permit more than 
a guess at present." The absence of previously doc- 
umented incised rim edges in culinary material from 
the Dinetah District led Marshall (1985:154) to 
agree with Brugge and to conclude that the style 
emerged after the general abandonment of the re- 
gion in the late eighteenth century. However, the 
incised vessel from the Frances Canyon Cache sug- 
gests that the style was in very occasional use in the 
Dinetah region before the general abandonment, 
perhaps in the late eighteenth century. 

In contrast, the Gobernador Indented vessel from 
the Frances Canyon Cache suggests and early eigh- 
teenth century use. Carlson (1965:65) refers to this 
type as "potentially the earliest known Navajo ware." 
He indicates that the type is most common in the 
drainages north of the San Juan and is rare in the 
southern canyonlands. "The early and relatively 
short life span" (Brugge 1981:86) of this type make 
the style a significant element of the early Navajo 
ceramic group designation (Eddy 1966:53). Brugge 
(1982:289) suggests an end date for the type at about 
AD 1720. The absence of Gobernador Indented 
material from Chaco Canyon, with a Navajo occupa- 
tion date after circa AD 1750, seems to verify the 
early use of the type. It should also be noted that 
very Httle indented material was found in the recent 
survey of seven pueblito complexes. Only 1 indented 
sherd in a sample of 243 utility sherds (4%) was 
noted at the Frances Canyon Pueblito. 

In summary, it is not possible to determine a 
specific date for the Frances Canyon Cache. It is, 
however, probable that the cache was made during 
the occupation of the Frances Canyon Pueblito 
Complex, represented by tree-ring dates from 1717 
to 1745. Two decorative styles which are rare to the 
Dinetah District, the incised rim edge and indented 
type are present in the cache. The incised material 
tends to suggest a late eighteenth century affinity 
while the indented materials suggests an early eigh- 
teenth century affinity. Since both styles are very 
infrequent in the Dinetah assemblages (Marshall 
1985:154, 157), neither can be considered as tempo- 
rally diagnostic. 



279 



Appendix B 

Catalogue of Artifacts Collected 



Most of the artifacts found in the 1989-1990 BLM 
Pueblito Survey were documented in the field and 
remain in sitii. There are, however, five locations 
from which artifacts were collected. The survey team 
was given authority by the BLM Farmington 
Resource Area Archeologist to collect occasional 
significant artifacts from surface contexts which 
might be endangered by unauthorized collection, by 
continued exposure to the elements, or which re- 
quired specialized laboratory analysis for identifica- 
tion. The five samples collected during this project 
are described in the following notes and have been 
submitted to Maxwell Museum of Anthropology for 
curation. 

Iron Ax: 10 No. 10, 
Frances Canyon Study Area 

An iron ax was found wedged in a crack in the 
upper cliff-ledge about 200 m to the east of the 
Frances Canyon Pueblito. The ax was apparently 
cached in a cavity on the upper cliff and fell into the 
crack below. It was located in an area protected 
from the elements which accounts for its excellent 
preservation. The ax appears to have seen little use 
as most of the blade appears intact. The edges of the 
blade and pole are decorated in a forge-cut zigzag 
and dot pattern (Figure C-1). The ax has a total 
length of 15 cm, and a width of 3.3 cm at the pole to 
9 cm at the blade. The outside diameter of the pole 
is 4.3 cm. 

This style of pole ax with an expanding blade is of 
the basic Vizcayan design. The £ix resembles the 
classic tomahawk which were often called "French 
axes" or, in the ninteenth century, "squaw axes." 
Axes of Vizcayan design in the eighteenth century 
were manufactured in large quantities in Spain, 
France, and England for export to the New World. 
Vizcayan-style axes were also manufactured in Mex- 
ico City during the early colonial era and exported 
to the Northern Borderlands. Most of the axes pro- 
duced by local New Mexican forges after 1700 have 



a distinctive projecting pole unlike the specimen 
from Frances Canyon (Simmons and Turley 
1980:69-70). It is probable, therefore, that the 
Vizcayan-style ax found at Frances Canyon is an 
item imported from either the Mexico City forges or 
the forges of Europe. 

A somewhat similar ax, although in extremely 
poor condition, was found in the excavations at Old 
Fort Pueblito (Carlson 1965:10; Hester 1962:125). 
Iron axes were no doubt an important trade item 
imported into the Dinetah District and were proba- 
bly used for weapons as well as woodworking. The 
extravagant quantities of hewn timbers in many of 
the pueblitos attest to the common usage of iron axes 
by the Dinetah populations. The Frances Canyon 
specimen is the best-preserved example of 
Vizcayan-style ax which has been found in the 
Dinetah District. 

Weaving Tools: LA 71599, 
Split Rock Study Area 

A cache of weaving and probable basketry tools 
was collected from a protected crevice shelter LA 
71599) at the cliff base about 100 m north of Split 
Rock Pueblito. The cache consists of two wood 
disks and six cut rods. Both of the disks are cut 
Cottonwood and the rods are unidentified hard- 
woods. One of the disks is perforated and has a 
black painted whorl design on one face. This disk is 
9.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick. The other disk is 
unperforated and without decoration. It is 9.5 cm in 
diameter and 0.75 cm thick. Most of the rods are 
polished fragments about 1 cm in diameter. None 
are painted. One is 1 m long and has a pointed end 
which fits into the perforated disk. Another rod 
fragment has a flat spatulate end and another a 
pointed polished tip. The disk and long rod are a 
probable weaving spindle (Amsden 1934:36) of in- 
complete manufacture. The pointed and spatulate- 
lipped rods may be basketry tools. 



Appendix B 



Cucurbita Specimen: 
LA 71581, Simon Canyon 
Study Area 

A fragment of the green smoothed skin squash 
identified as cucurbita by Mollie Toll, Castetter Lab- 
oratory of Elhnobotanical Studies, was found in a 
small storage cavity about 150 m southeast of the 
Simon Canyon Pueblito. The site (LA 71581) con- 
sists of a small cavity under a rock used as a storage 
area. Within the cavity there is a matt of dry juniper 
bark about 15 cm in depth. The squash was found 
in the shelter and was collected for identification. It 
is probable that this storage area is associated with 
the nearby pueblito since no other habitation sites 
were found in the area. 

Faceted Hematite Nodules and 
Clinker Specimens: LA 2298, 
Tapacito Pueblito 

Artifact analysis at the Tapacito middens re- 
vealed five clinker specimens from Midden 1 and 
five faceted hematite nodules from Middens 1 and 
2. Two samples of the clinker material, broken from 
the specimens, and two of the faceted hematite nod- 
ules were collected for further analysis. 

The clinker material found in Midden 1 indicates 
that coal was burned at the site and was perhaps used 
in the manufacture of metal tools. This is the first 
evidence to date of possible blacksmith activity in the 
Dinetah District. Clinker material has not been 
identified from any of the other pueblitos. The fact 
that Tapacito is the earliest dated pueblito is signif- 
icant in this regard as it suggests that the Puebloan 



refugees from the Rio Grande or Puname District 
brought with them a limited knowledge of iron forge 
technology. It is clear, however, that such knowl- 
edge was not maintained by Dinetah populations 
and that nearly all metal tools were obtained in trade 
from Spanish and perhaps French sources. 

The faceted hematite nodules are of considerable 
interest because they appear to be fashioned musket 
balls. Similar nodules have been recovered from the 
protohistoric Piedra Lumbre Phase sites on the 
Lower Chama drainage (Schaafsma 1979). Lacking 
access to lead, it appears as if certain frontier popu- 
lations manufactured musket balls from available 
minerals by grinding nodules down to size. These 
crudely fashioned musket balls suggest that the pop- 
ulations had muskets and, if so, it is possible that they 
were obtained as booty during the Pueblo Revolt of 
1680, approximately 10 years before the first con- 
struction at Tapacito in 1690. Additional evidence 
of firearms in the Dinetah is limited to a single iron 
spanner of a wheel lock musket found in the excava- 
tions at Frances Canyon (Carlson 1965:42; Hester 
1962:126), a site with dates from 1712 to 1745. The 
"homemade" musket balls from Tapacito and the 
gun part from Frances Canyon indicate that the 
Gobernador Phase populations of the Dinetah Dis- 
trict did possess occasional firearms, but it is prob- 
able that they were poorly maintained and that gun 
powder was in limited supply. 

Ceramic Vessels: LA 71594, 
Frances Canyon Cache 

Three fragmentary culinary vessels were recov- 
ered from the Frances Canyon Cache Site. These 
vessels are described in Appendix A. 



282 



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